PART III. Test Your Competence

(40 points)

Task 1. Decide which devices of cohesion from the list are used in the underlined parts of the following sentences. (10 points)
  • Donald’s wife brought in two big cups, holding one in each hand. One she gave to Daphne and the other to Donald.
  • You haven’t a nerve in you. You have never had.
  • Would you like to try these new candy bars? – Sure, give me a few, please.
  • America, at its best, matches a commitment to principle with a concern for civility. … America, at its best, is also courageous. … America, at its best, is compassionate.” (Barack Obama, inaugural address, 2009)
  • The witness gave the police details of the thief’s appearance. The description circulated throughout the metropolitan district.
  • It was not clear at first whether the house owners had been away for long but the letters on the doormat indicated that they must have.
  • She lifted it out, and looked at it. It was wrapped in paper, so she took off the paper and looked at it again. A leg of lamb.
  • The younger children in the village don’t learn the official language. Neither do older children.
  • To write a successful first novel is surprising, to write a second is astonishing, but to write a third is near impossible!
  • Was it a tear in the defendant’s eye as he described the incident? She believed so.
substitution ellipsis nominalization parallelism

Task 2. Use substitution for verbs and clauses and complete the text with the words from the list. (9 points)
did do does if not thought so
did so do it done that so do
“Do you dream of being the next J. K. Rowling?” The large print in the advert caught my eye as the train picked up speed. We have all (1) ..., haven’t we? I couldn’t make out the rest of the advert before it disappeared from sight, and I don’t pass through that station regularly. But a good friend (2) ...! So I asked him to find out what it was about when he next used the train. A few days later he (3) ..., and he sent me the website address of a distance-learning creative writing course.
I thought about it, I hesitated, but eventually I sent off for the details and then read them voraciously when they arrived. Did I really want to commit my time to doing this course? I (4) ..., but I wondered if I was being silly. I mean, why should a 65-year-old retired accountant study creative writing? Who starts a new career at that age? “Mary Wesley (5) ...,” said my friend, “and she published several novels before she died. Apply for it – you have to (6) ..., I think. (7)..., you will regret it for the rest of your life.”
That was all the encouragement I needed. The next day I phoned the college and enrolled for the next course, starting after the summer in late September, just two weeks from now. The course materials arrived in August. I think they look really good, and (8) ... my children, both of whom have been to university. I can’t wait to start working on the assignments, and getting my tutor’s comments, and when I (9) ..., I will know whether I am likely to be the next J. K. Rowling or not!

Task 3. Choose the most suitable connector. (10 points)
What exactly is globalization? (1) the term means whatever people want it to mean. In economics, the term usually refers to the way the world has become one market, with free exchange of goods and capital. (2) , it is also used to describe cross-cultural contacts. (3) being part of the same economic system, countries in different parts of the world share entertainment, food, and, (4) , similar attitudes to life. (5) , globalization often refers to the way TV and the Internet have created a unified world in which information can be exchanged very rapidly. In fact, a ‘global economy’ is only possible (6) modern information technology. (7) , politics has also become ‘globalized’, creating co-operation between countries. (8) , there are many critics of globalization who point out that while business has become global, there are still winners and losers: (9) , the richer nations may grow richer, and the poorer nations grow poorer. They also argue that (10) the global power of large corporations and international financial institutions, many countries no longer control their own economies.

Task 4. Punctuate the following sentences. (11 points)
1. Skiing is dangerous nevertheless millions of people ski. (2 points)
2. Henry used to believe his mother taught him the idea that no woman liked men to be extremely good-looking. (1 point)
3. His granny who just celebrated her eightieth birthday enjoys an occasional glass of champagne. (1 point)
4. To me the most important things in life are the following good health a happy home life and a satisfying occupation. (3 points)
5. Daisy and Tom were sitting at the kitchen table with a plate of cold fried chicken between them and two bottles of ale. (1 point)
6. Most people call he said before they come up Why didn’t you do it (3 points)

(35 points)

Task 1. Read the text and match the underlined clauses and sentences 1-6 with the text features in A-F. (6 points)
Paul Robeson was the first African American to gain international success in the ‘white’ world of Hollywood movies. He was born in 1898, the son of a runaway slave. (1) Highly intelligent, he won a scholarship to Columbia University, where he qualified as a lawyer. But there were few opportunities for black lawyers then and Robeson decided to pursue a career on the stage, where he soon became one of the biggest stars on Broadway. (2) Applauded for his acting ability and acclaimed for his remarkable physical presence on stage, Robeson went on to show the world his talent, his superb deep bass singing voice, in Jerome Kern’s hit musical Show Boat in 1927. (3) Success on Broadway inevitably led to Hollywood and Robeson made his screen debut in 1933, before moving to England, where he starred in King Solomon’s Mines.
Back in America Robeson returned to Show Boat, singing his famous song, Ol’ Man River. (4) A recording and singing career followed with Robeson popularizing traditional songs developed by black slaves in the American South. In the 1950s Robeson made a visit to the Soviet Union. It was an era of strong anti-communist feelings in the United States and when Robeson returned home his passport was cancelled. (5) He was blacklisted by Hollywood and was unable to find work. (6) Robeson left the States in 1958 and began a new career as a concert performer in Europe. But he became seriously ill in the sixties and returned to New York. He died in Harlem in 1976.

A. Putting familiar information at the beginning by using a noun.
B. Giving extra focus to information by putting it at the front of the sentence.
C. Repeating a grammatical structure to give extra emphasis (parallelism).
D. Familiar information at the beginning, new information at the end (the information principle).
E. Putting familiar information at the beginning by using the passive.
F. Long and complex phrases at the end (the end-weight principle).

Task 2. Read the sentences below and rewrite the underlined parts using a substitute word or phrase. (10 points)
1. The manager appealed to me to help them. I , and afterwards, he asked me to take over the manufacturing for them.
2. There is little point in starting out early to avoid the traffic, as everyone else too.
3. If the players answer the question correctly, they move their piece according to the number on the dice. , the turn passes to the next player.
4. Harry maintained that he had had no involvement in the publication of the photographs, but very few of the other editors believed .
5. Though many historians agree about the origin of the letter, several prominent historians .
6. There have been an increased number of burglaries in the area in recent months. has resulted in a greater police presence.
7. I know that some days I push myself too hard. I have all my life.
8. The management understands the wish to applaud during play but we ask you to refrain from as it distracts the players.
9. It is possible to respect both your own opinions and of other people.
10. Tom appeared in numerous films but practically no great .

Task 3. Choose the suitable linking elements from the list to complete the text. (10 points)
but also Finally However not only third
Thus First while Second whereas
There are noteworthy differences in W. Wordsworth’s and J. Donne’s poems. (1) ..., there is a difference in the ways in which the speakers in poems move. Wordsworth’s speaker is stepping westwards, (2) ... Donne’s is riding. (3) ..., these actions can be interpreted symbolically, Wordsworth may be suggesting that his speaker’s will is governing him, (4) ... Donne may be suggesting that his speaker’s will is subordinate to something external. (5) ..., Donne’s poem is (6) ... more agitated than Wordsworth’s, (7) ... it contains images demonstrating that Donne’s vision of human existence is more vivid than Wordsworth’s. For Donne the individual soul is a world in itself over which the forces of good and evil contend. (8) ..., there is nothing comparable in imaginable force in Wordsworth’s poem. And, (9) ..., the principal difference between the two poems is that Donne’s view of life is fuller, rounder than Wordsworth’s. Wordsworth’s problem ends where Donne’s begins. (10) ..., W. Wordsworth’s poems Stepping Westwards and J. Donne’s poem Good Friday, 1613, Riding Westwards differ in symbolic implications, in the philosophical depth of observations and in the emotional approach towards the problem at issue.

Task 4. Punctuate the text. (13 points)
Harriet Beecher Stowe was not a prominent writer but she created the greatest American propagandist novel ever. In 1863 (1) when Lincoln met her in Washington (2) he greeted her with (3) (4) So you are the little woman who made the book that made the great war (5) (6) There was some truth in this (7) as Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin united Northern feelings against slavery. As soon as it was published (8) it became a great popular success. Hundreds of thousands of copies were sold in America before the Civil War (9) since then it has been translated into over twenty languages and millions of copies have been sold worldwide. It is the story of an old black slave (10) Uncle Tom (11) who has the hope of freedom held before him but who never escapes from his slavery. In the end (12) he welcomes the death caused by his cruel master (13) Simon Legree.