Test 7

Psychological or Process Premises: the Tools of Motivation and Emotion

1. Appeals that rely on human needs, emotions, attitudes, and the psychic comfort we feel over decisions we make are referred to as ______ .

2. Research based on the social sciences and the study of marketing rather than on our traditional political, ideological, or rhetorical traditions is referred to as ___ .

3. Packard's approach to the needs premise is based on the idea that people’s needs are so powerful that they compel them to buy products to fulfill their needs.

4. Packard's first compelling need was the need for ______ .

5. This need is used in many persuasive appeals, from advertisements promising to make us better parents, spouses, or friends, to appeals for volunteers in good causes.

6. Packard refers to feelings of self-importance and having one's ego stroked as ___ .

7. Advertisements promoting products related to hobbies, crafts and social activities appeal to ________ .

8. The fact that many presidential candidates must demonstrate physical strength illustrate the following need:

9. When a parent feels lonely with the last kid going off to college, the parent will often find activities or objects to deal with “empty nest” syndrome. Packard refers to this need as ________ .

10. According to Maslow's Hierarchy, weaker needs (such as the need for self-respect) emerge only after stronger needs (like food or shelter) have been filled.

11. The base of Maslow's pyramid contains the strongest needs we have, which he defined as the ___________ .

12. The second level of Maslow's pyramid is the _______ .

13. The need to interact with others and to identify with some group is referred to as __________ .

14. The need to achieve one’s full potential or capability is referred to as ______ .

15. There are two dimensions of emotional states. They are ________ .

16. A psychological feeling of discomfort that arises when order is violated is ___ .

17. In most uses of fear appeals, the persuader must first convince us of the probability of the threat before offering us a means of avoiding it and then demonstrating that the proposed solution will work.

18. This theory suggests that when we experience psychological tension, or dissonance, we try to reduce it in some way instead of totally resolving the tension.

19. The prepotency principle of Maslow's pyramid of needs would predict that self actualization needs would supersede the need for love or esteem.

20. The nature of the attitude change depends on which path is followed.

21. ________ functions of attitudes stress the features and benefits of a product.

22. All of the following are sources of dissonance except _______ .

23. Attitudes have an important social function since they can either foster or discourage social networking.

24. Balance theory accounts for quantitative differences between judgments, while cognitive dissonance theory accounts for qualitative differences.

25. Persuaders try to create consonance if they want us to change our behavior.