U N I T 4


1. Match the words in Column A with their definitions in Column B.
  • to advance
  • adversary
  • ally
  • to break out
  • to combat
  • to defeat
  • to deploy
  • to escalate
  • hostilities
  • missile
  • offensive
  • to rout
  • to shell
  • stronghold
  • to wage
  • an opponent, enemy
  • a strongly defended place or position
  • to win a victory over smb., e.g. in a war
  • acts of fighting in war
  • to defeat completely and drive away
  • to fight against or oppose forcefully
  • to bombard with artillery
  • an explosive flying weapon with its own engine, which can be aimed at a distant object
  • to begin and continue (a war)
  • to spread out or arrange weapons or troops for effective action, esp. for military action
  • a country that is joined to another by political agreement, esp. the one that will provide support in war
  • (of an undesirable condition) to begin suddenly and often violently
  • (of war) to make or become more serious by stages
  • a continued military attack
  • to move forward in position

2. Substitute the words in bold with a word or word combination from the box without changing its form.
is advancing adversary allies will break out combat defeat deploys escalation hostilities missiles offensive routed shelling stronghold waged
  1. Повстанцы потерпели поражение - ... , понеся огромные потери, и отступили в Финляндию.
  2. Войска Ахмад-шаха Масуда предприняли контрнаступление на город Талукан, взятый боевиками во время летнего наступления - ... .
  3. В последнее время палестинской стороной были предприняты весьма серьезные меры по предотвращению обстрелов - ... израильской территории.
  4. Ввиду своей слабости такие отряды использовались для разведки или преследования обращенного в бегство - ... неприятеля.
  5. Задержанный иностранец участвовал в военных действиях - ... в Сирии на стороне сепаратистов.
  6. Армия наступает - ... на город Хама, который считается главным оплотом - ... исламистов.
  7. Поступил приказ на уничтожение любой боевой техники противника - ... , которая угрожает жизни наших военных в этом регионе.
  8. Россия активно развертывает - ... крылатые ракеты - ... большой дальности на своих самолетах, надводных кораблях и подводных лодках.
  9. Люди, развязавшие - ... эту войну, не заслужили права называться верующими.
  10. США будут защищать своих союзников - .... Вне зависимости от мощи их вооруженных сил они не могут сражаться - ... в одиночку.
  11. Существует опасность, что эта эскалация - ... приведет к тому, что на Кавказе, у российских границ, вспыхнет - ... новый серьезный конфликт.

3. For each word listed in Column A, choose a synonym from Column B.
  • attack
  • base
  • bombard
  • defeat
  • enemy
  • fight
  • fighting
  • grow
  • rocket
  • start
  • deploy
  • hostilities
  • adversary
  • offensive
  • missile
  • shell
  • rout
  • combat
  • break out
  • escalate

4. Choose the word that best completes the sentence.
advancing adversary ally broke out deploy escalate hostilities missiles offensive routed stronghold shelling waged
  1. By mid-February 2004 the violence continued to ... .
  2. Chinese military doctrinal writings discuss how to defeat a militarily superior ... such as the United States.
  3. The Rahenweyne Resistance Army (RRA) has emerged as Ethiopia's most reliable ... in war-torn Somalia.
  4. UN peacekeeper was killed Wednesday in a knife attack in a northern rebel ... , a UN official said.
  5. In the last few days a new uprising ... in the country’s western region.
  6. By mid-September 1999 the militants were ... .
  7. A small but well-equipped band of rebels remained firmly entrenched despite artillery ... .
  8. Head of the United Nations Peace-Building Support Office is convinced of the need for a cessation of ... in Liberia.
  9. Rebel forces have been ... on the city from both east and west.
  10. US Congress intends to ... 300 troops to Cameroon.
  11. Moscow disputes US reports that cruise ... fired at Syrian targets from warship in Caspian sea fell short of target.
  12. Ground troops loyal to Bashar al-Assad have launched a major ... in central Syria backed by Russian airstrikes.
  13. Muslim separatists have ... war for three decades.

5. Match the words in Column A with the words in Column B to make up possible word combinations.
  • hostilities
  • surface-to-surface
  • to launch
  • friendly
  • rebel
  • to wage
  • to deploy
  • to rout
  • military
  • air
  • stronghold
  • campaign
  • war
  • the enemy
  • an offensive
  • strike
  • missile
  • broke out
  • fire
  • troops

6. Insert prepositions where necessary.
  1. The commander-in-chief was given 36 hours to secure a withdrawal of his troops the combat zone.
  2. The local clashes in Somalia escalated a major conflict.
  3. Meanwhile the rebels say they are advancing the city from the west, and are now less than 20 miles away.
  4. Barack Obama announced the deployment of 250 troops Baghdad.
  5. Russia today announced it was abandoning plans to deploy nuclear-capable Iskander missiles its European Kaliningrad outpost.
  6. Baghdad came renewed attack last night from some 60 cruise missiles aimed at government and military targets.
  7. Ivory Coast, the world's largest cocoa producer, descended civil war after a failed September 2002 coup attempt.
  8. The Taifa al-Mansoura Army has decided to strike strategic and other targets of importance.
  9. On the morning of Dec. 11 the Government of Germany, pursuing its course of world conquest, declared an “all-out war” the United States.
  10. Even before the first day of the Persian Gulf crisis George Bush and the Pentagon wanted to wage war Iraq.
  11. The Japanese and Chinese commands rushed reinforcements to the scene where it is reported, fighting broke .

7. Substitute the words in bold with their synonyms from the box.
assault engagements erupted exacerbate fatalities forces insurgents launched pounded positioning
  1. Clashes broke out - ... after a U.S. tank collided with a civilian car, killing its driver.
  2. On 26 August Russian air raids targeted two Chechen villages where Muslim rebels - ... who were retreating from neighboring Dagestan were being sheltered.
  3. U.S. troops - ..., backed by attack helicopters and warplanes, swept into a village near the Syrian border Saturday in an offensive - ... aimed at rooting out al-Qaeda militants.
  4. This operation included an initial deployment - ... of 120 Marines.
  5. A long series of battles - ... and truces ended in 1920 when British warplanes bombed - ... Abdullah's stronghold at Taleex.
  6. The US military reports 75 militants dead in an offensive launched Sunday in western Iraq; there is no word on civilian casualties - ... , if any.
  7. The U.S. aircraft fired - ... missiles striking houses and cars, sending palls of smoke into the sky as the forces moved into Sadah.
  8. There is a fear that the migration of the pastoral population of the region may escalate - ... conflict with neighboring ethnic groups.

8. Complete the word forms chart.
Noun Agent Noun Verb Adjective