Нисходящий терминальный тон и его употребление. Восходящий терминальный тон и его употребление. Нисходяще-восходящий терминальный тон и его употребление. Интонация различных видов предложений. Интонация прямого обращения. Интонация вводных слов. Интонация слов автора в прямой и косвенной речи.
1. Назовите составные элементы интонации.
2. Прокомментируйте отличия между разновидностями нисходящего тона.
3. Прокомментируйте значения и случаи употребления разновидностей восходящего тона.
4. Приведите примеры употребления нисходяще-восходящего тона в различных типах высказываний.
5. Сравните интонационную структуру специального вопроса с интонационной структурой повествований и общих вопросов.
6. Сравните употребление терминальных тонов в двух частях альтернативного и разделительного вопросов.
В любом языке интонация служит для внешнего оформления предложения, так как придает предложению смысловую законченность, а также различную эмоциональную окраску. Средства передачи отношения к предмету высказывания и эмоционального состояния говорящего имеют в каждом из языков свои специфические черты. Незнание этих особенностей или неумение воспроизводить их в речи создают коммуникативные и психологические барьеры при общении.
В английском языке интонация играет особенно важную роль вследствие сильно выраженного аналитического характера языка. (В аналитических языках отношения между словами выражаются не при помощи окончаний, как в русском языке, а при помощи служебных слов: предлогов, артиклей, вспомогательных глаголов, а также при помощи интонации).
Составными элементами интонации являются:
- мелодика речи, повышение или понижение голоса во фразе (сравните произнесение повествовательного и вопросительного предложения);
- ритм речи, т.е. чередование ударных и безударных слогов;
- темп, т.е. быстрота или медленность речи и паузы между речевыми отрезками (сравните речь замедленную и речь скороговоркой);
- тембр, т.е. звуковая окраска, придающая речи те или иные эмоционально-экспрессивные оттенки;
- фразовое и логическое ударение, служащие средством выделения отдельных слов в предложении.
Фразы делятся на интонационные группы или синтагмы, законченные по смыслу отрезки, иногда это может быть и все предложение. У каждой синтагмы есть своя интонация, которая демонстрирует о завершенности или незавершенности в ней мысли.
Одним из наиболее употребительных тонов в английском языке является нисходящий тон (the Falling Tone), воспринимаемый как падение высоты голоса на ударном слоге, причем по сравнению с русским языком падение в английском языке более крутое.
Если падение голоса начинается с высокого уровня, используется высокий нисходящий тон (the High Fall), высказывания, произнесенные с этим тоном, звучат энергично, заинтересованно, бодро.
Средний нисходящий тон (the Mid Fall) означает падение голоса от среднего к низкому уровню. Высказывания, произнесенные этим тоном, характеризуются нейтральным отношением говорящего к ситуации и содержанию высказывания.
Начало низкого нисходящего тона (the Low Fall) находится на границе среднего и низкого регистров, высказывания, произнесенные этим тоном, звучат сдержанно.
Нисходящий тон – это тон категоричного утверждения, законченности, определенности. Поэтому он обычно используется в следующих случаях:
- в конце восклицательных предложений: What a nice house! How high! How interesting!
- в конце кратких повествовательных предложений (утвердительных и отрицательных): I will come soon. It's difficult to say. I don't know where he is. She didn't call me.
- в конце повелительных предложений, выражающих приказ, команду или запрещение: Come here! Stand there! Leave the dog alone!
- в конце специальных вопросов, начинающихся с вопросительных местоимений:How much? Who is in the house? Where is the book?
- в конце второй части альтернативного вопроса, предполагающего выбор из двух возможных вариантов. Альтернативный или выборочный вопрос состоит из двух общих вопросов, соединенных союзом или: Were you at the cinema or at the theatre yesterday?
- в конце первой части разделительного вопроса, который представляет собой повествовательное предложение: You know him, don't you?
- в конце второй части разделительного вопроса, когда спрашивающий уверен в правильности сообщения первой части и не ждет никаких дополнительных сведений, а только выражает желание подтвердить, что данное суждение верно: It is warm today, isn't it?
- выделяя приложение в конце предложения: This is my friend, an artist.
- в конце придаточного предложения, стоящего перед главным, если последнее предложение произносится с восходящим тоном : When you come home, will you call me?
Восходящий тон (the Rising Tone) – один из основных мелодических типов в английском языке. Он представляет собой подъем высоты голоса от более низкого к более высокому уровню: Is he at home? Do you hear me? Is there anybody here? Are you sure he will come?
В зависимости от уровня подъема высоты голоса выделяются высокая, средняя и низкая разновидности восходящего тона, каждая из которых может быть подразделена на широкую и узкую градации в зависимости от того, происходит ли подъем в пределах одного регистра или охватывает более широкую часть диапазона голоса.
Высокий восходящий тон (the High Rise) реализуется в высоком регистре диапазона голоса (узкий высокий восходящий тон (the High Narrow Rise) или охватывает часть среднего и высокого регистров (средне-высокий восходящий тон (the High Wide Rise).
Основное значение высокого восходящего тона – вопросительность. Неполные общие вопросы, произнесенные с высоким восходящим тоном, передают готовность говорящего поддержать беседу и желание получить более точную, дополнительную информацию: 'Call me ` later. – At ˊnoon?
Этот тон также используется в ситуации, когда говорящий хочет выиграть время на обдумывание ответа, для уточнения правильности услышанного или для выражения удивления: 'Let`s 'meet at the `circus. – At the ˊ circus?
Характерной особенностью переспросов, особенно со значением удивления или изумления, является повышение начального уровня подъема голоса, в данном случае употребляется узкий высокий восходящий тон (the High Narrow Rise):He`ll 'take 'part in this `contest. – In this ˊcontest ?
Cредний высокий восходящий тон (the Mid Rise) употребляется в полных общих вопросах, в которых есть предъядерные ударные слоги, образующие высокую ровную или постепенно понижающуюся последовательность, и начало ядерного слога смещается немного вниз: 'Can you 'speak ˊEnglish?
Низкий высокий восходящий тон (the Low Rise) означает такое повышение высоты голоса, которое начинается на низком уровне диапазона голоса и заканчивается на среднем. Терминальный низкий восходящий тон реализуется двумя способами: а) повышение голоса происходит на ядерном слоге, если он является последним во фразе (интонационной группе); б) если имеются заядерные слоги, подъем высоты голоса непосредственно осуществляется на этих безударных слогах, в то время как ядерный – произносится на ровном низком уровне голоса. Основное значение низкого восходящего тона – незаконченность, незавершенность, отсутствие категоричности. Низкий восходящий тон придает высказыванию оттенок неуверенности, недосказанности, колебания. Предложения, произнесенные с низким подъемом, звучат вопросительно, выражают готовность продолжить беседу:I am af `raid that's not ˊ so.
C восходящим тоном обычно произносятся:
- распространенные подлежащие: My brother and I
went on an excursion;
- обстоятельства в начале предложения: Last year there was a lot of snow in the streets of our town;
- каждый из перечисляемых однородных членов предложения, кроме последнего, если он является концом повествовательного предложения: There are books, exercise books, pens and pencils on the desks;
- общие вопросы, начинающиеся с вспомогательных или модальных глаголов и требующие ответов «да» или «нет»: Have you ever been to London?
- вторая часть разделительного вопроса, если спрашивающий выражает желание получить какую-либо дополнительную информацию, так как он не уверен в правильности сведений в первой части вопроса: You've got this book,haven't you?
- первая часть вопросов, предполагающих выбор (альтернативные вопросы), так как эта часть вопроса по сути является общим вопросом: Have you seen this film on TV or at the cinema?
- придаточные предложения, стоящие перед главным:As soon as I arrive at the hotel , I will let you know.
- слова прощания, благодарности, а также выражение all right:Good-bye! See you tomorrow. Thank you. All right.
NB ! Если выражение all right произнести с нисходящим тоном, то оно может быть воспринято как угроза.
Нисходяще-восходящий тон (The Fall-Rise) является одним из наиболее употребительных в английском языке. Он имеет два структурных варианта: разделенный (the Fall-Rise Divided) и неразделенный (the Fall-Rise Undivided). При неразделенном варианте как нисходящий, так и восходящий элементы тона соотносятся с одним ударным слогом; при разделенном – падение и подъем высоты голоса осуществляются на разных слогах. Нисходяще-восходящий тон часто употребляется в английской разговорной речи для выражения различного рода эмоций от сомнения до дружеского возражения. Падение – подъем происходят:
- в пределах одного слова: `ˊ No. `ˊ Yes;
- в пределах двух смежных слогов: ` That' ˊ right;
- в пределах двух слогов, разделенных одним или несколькими неударными слогами: `Diffi ˊcult. ` Neceˊssary.
Нисходяще-восходящий тон часто употребляется в английской разговорной речи для выражения различного рода эмоций: от сомнения – до дружеского возражения, например:
- коррекция, уточнение: I believe his name is Philip. – David.
- мягкое, дружелюбное возражение: I am afraid that's not so.
- сомнение, предположение: What colour is her dress? It may be grey.
- контраст, противопоставление: I have a lot of Russian books, but no French books.
Интонация повествовательных предложений
Повествовательные фразы, содержащие простую констатацию факта (сообщения, наименования, ответы), категоричные, спокойные, серьезные и рассудительные утверждения обычно произносятся с нисходящим тоном: He is a ˎdoctor. I have 'two ˎchildren. She can speak ˎSpanish.
В предложениях, содержащих перечисление, обычно каждая незаконченная смысловая группа произносится c восходящим тоном: There are 'six ˎmembers in my ˌfamily: | my ˏmother, | my ˏfather, | my 'elder ˏsister, | my 'two ˏbrothers | and ˎ I.
В сложносочиненных повествовательных предложениях первая и вторая части их обычно произносятся с низким нисходящим тоном: 'Winners were called “o'lympiˎonics ” | and they were a 'warded 'olive 'wreaths and 'cups of 'olive ˎoil.
Если придаточное предложение стоит перед главным в сложноподчиненном предложении, то оно обычно выделяется в отдельную синтагму и произносится с низким восходящим тоном: Be'fore you ˏgo, | have a 'look at my 'latest ˎ photos. Если сложное предложение начинается с главного, то обычно обе части произносятся с нисходящим тоном: I must 'do it aˎlone |since you re'fuse to ˎhelp.
Однако если существует причинно-следственная связь, первая часть произносится с восходящей интонацией: She was ofˏfended | and she 'burst into ˎtears.
В предложениях, начинающихся оборотом there + to be, обстоятельство места, как правило, неударно или частично ударно и не образует отдельную синтагму. Обстоятельство места, стоящее перед оборотом there + to be, обычно произносится с восходящим тоном и выделяется в отдельную синтагму: There is a ˎtable on the left. On the ˏleft | there is a ˎtable.
Для выражения коррекции, уточнения, несогласия, сомнения, предположения в повествовательных предложениях употребляется нисходяще-восходящий тон:I 'think his 'brother is `twenty. – 'Twenty -ˊtwo.
Если в начале предложения стоит причастный оборот, то он произносится с восходящим тоном: The 'weather being ˏcold |we 'stayed at ˎhome.
Если причастный оборот стоит в конце предложения, он может быть в зависимости от отношения говорящего выделен в отдельную синтагму и будет произноситься с нисходящим тоном: They 'came ˎup to him|'eating 'chocolate and laughing. They 'came 'up to him 'eating 'chocolate and ˎlaughing.
Oбстоятельственные группы в начале предложений обычно выделяются в отдельную синтагму и произносятся с низким восходящим тоном: In 'front of the ˏhouse | we have a 'small ˎlake.
Обстоятельственные группы в конце предложений, как правило, частично ударны или безударны: It's 'getting ˎcold ˌout of ˌdoors .
Интонация общих вопросов
Общие вопросы обычно произносятся с восходящим тоном: 'Shall we 'take a ˏtaxi? 'Can you 'come a ˏgain?
Неполные общие вопросы, произнесенные с восходящим тоном, передают готовность говорящего поддержать беседу и желание получить более точную дополнительную информацию: 'Let`s call him `later. – At ˊnoon?
Переспросы с высоким восходящим тоном употребляются в тех случаях, когда говорящий хочет выиграть время на обдумывание ответа, для уточнения правильности услышанного или для выражения удивления, изумления и т.д.:'He is a 'famous `artist. – An ˊ artist?
Интонация разделительных вопросов
Разделительные вопросы состоят из двух интонационных групп. Первая интонационная группа обычно произносится с нисходящим тоном. Интонация второй синтагмы зависит от отношения говорящего. Если говорящий не уверен в ответе и ждет мнения собеседника, то вторая интонационная группа произносится с восходящим тоном: You'll 'stay to ˋtea, | ˏwon't you?
Разделительный вопрос с нисходящим тоном в обеих частях употребляется в тех случаях, когда говорящий уверен в подтверждении своего предположения. Такой вопрос по существу не является запросом об информации, его цель – стимулировать продолжение разговора: You'll 'stay to ˋtea, | ˎwon 't you?
Интонация альтернативных вопросов
Альтернативный вопрос – это фраза, состоящая из двух интонационных групп, граница между которыми проходит перед союзом or. В первой интонационной группе употребляется восходящий терминальный тон (высокий или низкий), во второй – нисходящий тон. Высокий восходящий тон в первой интонационной группе звучит нейтрально, выражая запрос об информации, в то время как низкий восходящий тон придает вопросу более непринужденное звучание: ˈIs your ˈniece in ˊGermany | or `England? ˈIs this ˈactor ˏ French | or `German? Между интонационными группами соблюдаются паузы большей или меньшей длительности. Нисходящий тон в конце показывает, что перечень возможного выбора закончен.
Альтернативные вопросы могут состоять из специального вопроса и следующих за ним однородных членов предложения. Первая часть такого вопроса произносится с нисходящим тоном, во второй части первая альтернатива произносится с подъемом, а вторая – с падением: 'When will they 'read my appliˋcation: ˊtomorrow or ˋtoday?
Интонация специальных вопросов
Интонационная структура специального вопроса во многом совпадает с интонационной структурой повествования, обычно он произносится с нисходящим тоном, которым обычно выделяется последнее значимое слово во фразе:'What's the ˎtime ? Who's ˋthat?
В специальных вопросах, где сказуемое выражено смысловым глаголом to be, а подлежащее – личным местоимением, ядерный тон падает на глагол: 'Where ˋis it ? В данном случае информация запрашивается о лице или предмете, уже известном из предшествующего контекста.
Категоричные, серьезные, формальные вопросы имеют низкий нисходящий тон, заинтересованные, живые вопросы имеют высокий нисходящий тон: 'How ˎmuch is it? Where ˋelse have you ˎbeen?
Следует отметить, что специальные вопросы могут также произноситься с высоким восходящим тоном, если говорящий просит повторить какую-либо информацию: ˊWhat did you say? 'When did he ˊcome?
Интонация побудительных высказываний
Побудительные высказывания, выражающие приказание, инструкцию к действию, настойчивую просьбу или совет, произносятся с нисходящим тоном: ˋ Send it. ˋTake it.
Нисходяще-восходящий тон в побудительных высказываниях служит для выражения просьбы или предупреждения. Предупреждение произносится с неразделенным вариантом нисходяще-восходящего тона, а просьба – с разделенным: Don`t be `ˊlate. ˋClose the ˏdoor , please.
Просьбы с нисходяще-восходящим тоном звучат более оживленно, тепло и сердечно: 'Tell me the `ˊtruth.
Восклицательные предложения, выражающие удивление, гнев, возбуждение, практически всегда произносятся с нисходящим тоном: `Dreadful! 'Welcom to ` London!
Некоторые восклицания имеют специальную грамматическую форму и начинаются сwhat или how: What 'pretty `eyes she has! How `nice of him!
Приказы произносятся с нисходящим тоном: `Fire! `Stop it!Stand `up when you answer.
Чтобы стимулировать собеседника к продолжению разговора или определенным
действиям, используется восходящий тон: Go ˊ on!
Предупреждения часто произносятся с нисходяще-восходящим тоном: ` Watch ˊout!
Приказы и указания, произнесенные с восходящим тоном (с высокой предшкалой), звучат успокаивающе и любезно, этот тон часто используется при разговоре с детьми: Come to ˊ Daddy!
В начале предложения обращение обычно ударно и образует самостоятельную интонационную группу, которая может принимать любой из ядерных тонов. Нисходящий тон придает обращению (и всей фразе в целом) официальность, серьезность и весомость: ˋHelen, | 'take a ˋseat. В неофициальной обстановке прямое обращение может быть произнесено с восходящим тоном: Мy ˏfriends, I am 'glad to 'see you `here. Для привлечения внимания может использоваться нисходяще-восходящий тон: `ˊ Nick, are you ˊ ready?
В середине или в конце предложения обращение обычно неударно или частично ударно и продолжает мелодию предшествующего ударного слога: ˋLook, ˌMummy, | I'm 'right on the ˋtop .ˋMany ˏthanks, Fred. Как правило, обращение в конце фразы добавляется из вежливости, а иногда для выражения критики: You are 'late ˋagain, Tom. Использование разделенного варианта нисходяще-восходящего тона привлекает внимание, кроме того, высказывание звучит теплее: You 'seem ˋtired, ˏMum .
Интонация разговорных формул
К разговорным формулам относятся приветствия, прощания, извинения,
выражения благодарности, а также фразы, обычно используемые в ответ на них.
Разговорные формулы играют важную роль в общении. Они помогают установить или поддерживать контакт между собеседниками и считаются обязательной частью социальных норм речевого общения. Согласно их функции в речи, разговорные формулы могут быть определены как формулы вежливости. Однако степень вежливости может быть разной. Это зависит от сферы общения и личного отношения говорящего к ситуации и собеседнику. Разницу в степени или интенсивности вежливости можно выразить интонацией.
Употребление нисходяще-восходящего тона выражает дружеское, заинтересованное отношение к собеседнику: ˋGood ˊmorning. `ˊ Thank you.
Восходящий тон, которому предшествует низкая предъядерная часть, используется при общении близко знакомых, регулярно встречающихся людей, или в ситуациях, когда выражение благодарности или извинения является всего лишь формальностью: Heˏllo. Not at ˏall. That`s allˏ right.
В нейтральных ситуациях разговорные формулы произносятся с нисходящим тоном, в зависимости от содержания или тембра голоса они могут звучать искренне, серьезно или формально и живо: 'How do you ` do, ˌMiss Brown. Good `morning, ˌchildren .
Excuse me в начале фразы произносится с нисходящим тоном: Ex`cuse me. Can you 'show me the 'way to the 'nearest hoˊtel?
Pardon в вопросительном предложении – с восходящим тоном: – Who's that ˊboy? – ˊPardon? – I'm 'asking you a'bout that `boy.
Интонация вводных слов
Интонация вводных слов в начале предложения зависит от отношения говорящего к высказыванию. Если говорящий не придает значения вводным словам, то они, как правило, произносятся быстро, часто неударны и не образуют отдельную синтагму: Well I ˎdo. 'Well, I ˎdo.
Если говорящий придает большое значение вводным словам, они образуют отдельную синтагму и произносятся либо нисходящим, либо восходящим или нисходяще-восходящим тоном:ˎGenerally | about 'half 'past ˎseven . ˏGenerally | about 'half 'past ˎseven. ˎGeneˏrally | about 'half 'past ˎseven.
Вводные слова и предложения могут встречаться в начале, в середине и в конце предложения.
Вводные слова и предложения, стоящие в начале основного предложения, являются ударными. Они могут выделяться в отдельную смысловую группу или входить в состав основной смысловой группы, чаще всего они произносятся восходящим тоном (To 'tell you the ˏtruth, I don’t ˋknow), а также нисходящим (ˋWell, I`ll ˋdo it for you) и нисходяще-восходящим тоном (For my ˋown ˊpart, I' d ˋlove to).
Вводные слова и предложения, находящиеся в середине предложения, делят его на две части, присоединяются к предшествующей смысловой группе и продолжают ее мелодию. Вводные слова в середине предложения могут произноситься как с восходящей, так и с нисходящей интонацией: The ˎEnglish, | as you ˏknow, | are a 'matter-of-'fact ˎpeople. ˎEverybody, | it's ˎtrue, | 'wouldn't apˎprove of it. If you 'have 'time ˊ tomorrow”, he continued, we shall ˋmeet.
В конце предложения вводные слова или краткие вводные предложения обычно произносятся без ударения и продолжают интонацию предшествующей смысловой группы: Helen ˋknows him , you know.
Интонация слов автора в прямой и косвенной речи
Предложение, вводящее прямую речь, выделяется в отдельную синтагму и произносится либо восходящим, либо нисходящим тоном, или же на среднем уровне (Midlevel): He ˎsays, | “I`m ˎtwenty.”He ˏsays, | “I`m ˎtwenty.” He says, | “ I`m ˎtwenty.”
Слова автора после прямой речи обычно неударны или частично ударны и продолжают интонацию предшествующего ударного слога: I`m ˎtwenty, she said .
Если слова автора после прямой речи представляют собой распространенное предложение, они произносятся с тем же тоном, что и предшествующая интонационная группа в прямой речи: I`m ˎtwenty, she said, | ˌlooking aˌround her as she ˎspoke.
В косвенной речи это предложение обычно не образует самостоятельной смысловой группы: He 'says he is ˎtwenty.
Упражнение 1. Прослушайте и прочитайте предложения с нисходящим тоном:
1) в конце восклицательных предложений (ТRACK 6.1) :
What a horrid little flat! What a shocking answer! What a fantastic picture! How wonderful! How terrifying!
2) в конце кратких повествовательных предложений (ТRACK 6.2) :
I have a lot of time to spare. He knows nothing about it. She gets up early as a rule.
I didn't see him yesterday. We haven't been here before.
3) в конце повелительных предложений (ТRACK 6.3) :
Do as you are told! Don't interrupt me! Clean the mess on your desk! Take your umbrella! Don't make so much noise!
4) в конце специальных вопросов (ТRACK 6.4) :
What has happened to you? When did she come home? Why aren't you at work?
How much are the tickets? Who was present at the meeting?
5) в конце первой части разделительного вопроса (ТRACK 6.5) :
You can come to the party, can't you? His English is limited, isn't it? The day wasn't frosty, was it? They have never spoken to you, have they? She doesn't know him from Adam, does she?
6) в конце второй части разделительного вопроса ( ТRACK 6.6) :
The station is far, isn't it? Hilda doesn't live alone, does she? Nora gave you her address, didn't she?
7) произнося приветствие при встрече (ТRACK 6.7) :
Good morning! Good afternoon! Good evening! How do you do?
8) выделяя обращение в начале предложения (ТRACK 6.8) :
John, will you help me please? Kelly, can I take your magazine? George, don't be late for work. Children, do you know this rule? Boys, stop fighting please.
9) выделяя приложение в конце предложения (ТRACK 6.9) :
This is my teacher, Miss Vivien. I want you to meet Jim Crow, an actor. Do you know Sarah Mage, a nurse? This is my niece, Mary Ferrows. I'd like to see Mr. Dadson, your boss.
10) в конце придаточного предложения ( ТRACK 6.10) :
When you see her, will you tell her to come? If you find my textbook, will you let me know? As soon as the rain stops, will you go out? Until the postman comes, will you stay at home? After you arrive in London, will you call me?
Упражнение 2. Произнесите следующие фразы с восходящим тоном:
1) распространенное подлежащее (ТRACK 6.11) :
My wife and I went to Italy for our holidays. Jim and his sister lived in a small town. Linda and her husband came home late.Her family and she moved from town to town. The children and their mother were at home.
2) обстоятельство в начале предложения (ТRACK 6.12) :
In the middle of the room there was a table. Late at night there was a knock on the door. Long ago there used to be a big forest here. Every weekend he goes to the country. As a rule I go to work by bus.
3) общие вопросы (ТRACK 6.13) :
Do you have your meals at home? Did she tell you about her problem? Has Dina sent a letter to her parents? Are you going to leave soon? Can we meet outside the cinema at six?
4) первая часть альтернативного вопроса (ТRACK 6.14) :
Is your daughter at home or at school now? Would you like tea or coffee for breakfast? Is he an engineer or a mechanic? Have you read the book or seen the film? Will you take this magazine or that one?
5) вторая часть разделительного вопроса (ТRACK 6.15) :
The room is not very comfortable, is it? Felix is a decent guy, isn't he? You will stay in your office till six, won't you? Ann went to Spain last summer, didn't she?
You haven't done all the work yet, have you?
6) однородные члены предложения (ТRACK 6.16) :
I'd like to buy milk, bread, butterand cheese. This year he's been to Italy, Spain, France and Germany. There are forks, knives, spoons and plates on the table.
I have a sister, two brothers and three nephews.
7) вежливая просьба (ТRACK 6.17) :
Will you tell me the time, please? Would you mind my closing the window? Can you help me carry this heavy box? Could you show me the way to the station? May I use your telephone?
8) придаточные предложения, стоящие перед главным (ТRACK 6.18) :
When it's time to go to bed , kids usually become very naughty. As soon as I receive his letter, I'll tell you. Unless we hurry, we'll be late for school.If she doesn't take a fast train, she won't arrive in time. After I have read this book I'll give it to you.
9) слова прощания, благодарности, выражение “ all right ”(ТRACK 6.19) :
Good-bye! See you tomorrow! Thank you! Thank you very much. All right!
Упражнение 3. Произнесите фразу "Not very" с нисходяще-восходящим тоном, чтобы выразить мягкое, дружелюбное возражение (ТRACK 6.20):
This radio set is good, isn't it? – Not very.
That question is difficult, isn't it? – Not very.
That novel is new, isn't it? – Not very.
The bag is heavy, isn't it? – Not very.
The room is narrow, isn't it? – Not very.
Упражнение 4. Произнесите реплики в диалогах с нисходяще-восходящим тоном, чтобы выразить уточнение (ТRACK 6.21):
- The photos are in the box, aren't they? - In the album.
- The children are at school, aren't they? - In the yard.
- The books are in the bookcase, aren't they? - On the bookshelf.
- The pupils are at the lesson, aren't they? - At the library.
- Eva and David are married for ten years, aren't they? - For fifteen.
- Sam is leaving today, isn't he? - Tomorrow.
Упражнение 5. Произнесите вторую часть предложения с нисходяще-восходящим тоном, чтобы выразить противопоставление (ТRACK 6.22):
I want to go to the village, but not in winter.
I want to go to the park, but not in the afternoon.
I want to go to the library, but not today.
I'd like to play tennis, but not right now.
I'd love to watch TV, but not in the day time.
Упражнение 6. Произнесите реплики в диалогах с нисходяще-восходящим тоном, чтобы выразить предположение (ТRACK 6.23):
- Where is my hat? – It may be on the armchair.
- Where is Sally's bag? – It may be near the door.
- Where is our map? – It may be on the wall.
- Where is Lisa's belt? – It may be in the wardrobe.
- Where are my pencils? – They may be in the pencil-box.
- Where are the children's toys? – They may be in the bedroom.
- Where are the students? – They may be at the lecture.
Упражнение 7. Прочитайте утверждения с низким нисходящим тоном:
1. Ann is a University student. 2. She has two brothers. 3. Mary is almost twenty. 4. My mother is a housewife. 5. They both came from quite large families. 6. Agriculture is their main occupation. 7. I live in a university flat. 8. She wants to study agriculture at the University next year. 9. It's not a very wise choice. 10. I read it carefully. 11. You can come to lunch tomorrow. 12. The children are at school now. 13. He wasn't right. 14. You must go now. 15. He didn't see her yesterday.
Упражнение 8. Прочитай приказы с нисходящим, а просьбы – с восходящим тоном:
a) ˎGo. ˎTry. ˎStay. ˎWait. ˎWrite. ˎPhone. ˎHere. ˎStop it. ˎBring it.
b) 'Open the 'books at 'page ˎ30. Tran'scribe and in'tone the ˎsentences. 'Learn the 'text by ˎheart. 'Don't ˎlook at me. 'Speak ˎlouder. 'Don't 'make misˎtakes. 'Always co'rrect your miˎstakes. 'Let him 'speak ˎlouder. 'Ask ˎquestions. 'Read the ˎtext. 'Sit ˎdown. 'Take a ˎpen.
c) 'Write to her aˋgain then. 'Don't 'say anything at ˋall. 'Come as 'soon as you ˋcan. 'Let's 'go ˋhome. 'Don't 'go aˋway. 'Shut the ˋdoor.
d) Conˏtinue. 'Go ˏon. 'Go aˏhead. 'Don't ˏmention it. Be ˏcareful. Your ˏpassport, please. 'Hold it ˏcarefully. 'Don't 'take it too 'much to ˏheart. 'Cheer ˏup. 'Don't ˏworry. 'Don't be ˏlong. 'Let me ˏshow you. 'Give it to ˏMummy, Johnnie. 'Now 'don't 'stay 'too ˏlate. 'Do 'bring him 'round to ˏsee us. 'Pass me the ˏsalt, please. 'Work ˏhard. 'Don't be ˏsilly. 'Buy me a ˏnewspaper. 'Wait a ˏmoment. 'Let's 'try aˏgain. 'Open the ˏwindow. 'Have a ˏheart. 'Don't be aˏfraid.
Упражнение 9. Прочитайте общие вопросы по образцу:
Model: Is 'Kate a ˏteacher? 'Do you 'like ˏmusic?
1. Is Peter twenty? 2. Is your name John? 3. Do you speak English? 4. Do you study at the Institute? 5. Do you live in the hostel? 6. Does she like to work in the garden? 7. Does she know Mary? 8. Is your family large? 9. Are your brothers teachers? 10. Is it difficult to find a job in London? 11. Does Helen study at a local comprehensive school? 12. Are you a pupil?
Упражнение 10. Прочитайте предложения с конструкцией there+to be:
1. There are twelve months in a year. 2. There are four seasons in a year. 3. There are sixty minutes in an hour. 4. Is there a farm beyond the forest? 5. Are there any mistakes in your dictation? 6. On my table there are two exercise-books and a text-book. 7. In a fortnight there are two weeks. 8. In a month there are four weeks. 9. Are there thirty days in November? 10. Is there a blackboard in the room? 11. There are some flowers on the window. 12. Under the window there is a radiator.
Упражнение 11. Прочитайте вопросы и ответьте на них:
1. Are there windows in your classroom? 2. Is there a blackboard on the wall? 3. Is there any chalk at the blackboard? 4. Is there a duster at the blackboard? 5. Is there a bookcase in the room? 6. Are there any pictures on the wall? 7. Is there a map on the wall? 8. Is there a tape-recorder on the table? 9. Are there many desks in your classroom? 10. Are there many books on your table? 11. Are there any flowers on the window? 12. Are there any flowers on the teacher's table? 13. Is there a teacher in the room?
Упражнение 12. Прочитайте разделительные вопросы:
a ) с нисходящим тоном ( говорящий уверен в ответе и не ждет его ) :
1. There are 18 faculties at our University, aren't there? 2. Our University is the oldest in our country, isn't it? 3. You finished school last year, didn't you? 4. He's got a new job, hasn't he? 5. That was most unfair, wasn't it? 6. We must hurry, mustn't we? 7. He teaches English, doesn't he? 8. He always has lunch at one, doesn't he? 9. You don't believe me, do you? 10. We shall see each other again, shan't we? 11. We had no choice, had we? 12. I was right, wasn't I? 13. Today's the tenth, isn't it? 14. She has three children, hasn't she? 15. I could try again, couldn't I?
b ) с восходящим тоном ( говорящий не уверен в ответе и ждет мнения собеседника ) :
1. You didn't tell anybody, did you? 2. You're taking the exam in June, aren't you? 3. It's quite impossible, isn't it? 4. She'll be starting school next year, won't she? 5. I asked you before, didn't I? 6. I suppose that is true, isn't it? 7. Everyone agreed, didn't they? 8. It's going to rain, isn't it? 9. No one was hurt, were they? 10. There was no answer, wasn't there? 11. She never waits, does she? 12. I'd better go, hadn't I? 13. You do smoke, don't you? 14. We last met in March, didn't we? 15. They were too late, weren't they?
Упражнение 13. Прочитайте общие вопросы по образцу:
Model : It's 'very ˎdifficult, | ˎisn't it? It's 'very ˎdifficult, | ˏisn't it?
1. There is a new time-table for this term, isn't there? 2. You don't know this student, do you? 3. We shall have two seminars today, shan't we? 4. There were many unknown words in this text, weren't there? 5. All the students study foreign languages, don't they? 6. You live in the hostel, don't you? 7. You have four exams this term, don't you? 8. The Institute course lasts five years, doesn't it? 9. You study at the historical faculty, don't you? 10. She is a bright student, isn't she?
Упражнение 14. Прочитайте альтернативные вопросы:
Model: 'Is he a ˏdoctor | or a ˎteacher?
1. Is your name Peter or Nick? 2. Are you twenty or twenty-one? 3. Do you study English or French? 4. Are you a student or a teacher? 5. Are you a first or a second-year student? 6. Do you live at home or in the hostel? 7. Do you take exam in English in the fourth or in the third course? 8. Do you read the Times or the Moscow News? 9. Are there 15 or 14 faculties in our University? 10. Have you got a small or a large family? 11. Have you a sister or a brother? 12. Is your favourite subject history or pedagogics?
Упражнение 15. Образуйте альтернативные вопросы, используя данные предложения:
Model: She 'lives in ˎMoscow. She 'lives in ˎKiev. – 'Does she 'live in ˏMoscow | or in ˎKiev?
1. This text is difficult. This text is easy. 2. She studies German. She studies English. 3. They go to the Crimea every year. They go to the Caucasus every year. 4. Your family is big. Your family is small. 5. There are five members in Ann's family. There are six members in Ann's family. 6. You study at the Institute. You study at the University. 7. She has passed her exam in English. She has passed her exam in history. 8. It takes Helen an hour to get to the Institute. It takes Helen half an hour to get to the Institute. 9. Peter is a hard-working student. Peter is a lazy-bones. 10. There is much milk at home. There is little milk at home. 11. There are many students in the room. There are few students in the room. 12. There is much snow in Moscow in winter. There is little snow in Moscow in winter.
Упражнение 16. Закончите предложения, используя слова в скобках:
Model: 'Do you 'study at the 'Russian ˏfaculty? (English faculty) – 'Do you 'study at the ˏRussian | or at the ˎEnglish ˏfaculty?
1. Does the University course last four years? (five years) 2. Is this time-table new? (old) 3. Do you do your homework at home (at the University) 4. Do you have many mistakes in your test? (few mistakes) 5. Is your Institute named after M. Lomonosov? (University) 6. Was your University awarded two orders? (three orders) 7. Does your University train students of day department? (evening department) 8. Have you got a seminar in history today? (in pedagogics) 9. Have you got two lectures today? (two seminars) 10. Is she better today? (worse) 11. Does she study well? (he) 12. Is Ann a lazybones? (Helen) 13. Have you read about the system of education in Greece? (have heard) 14. Can you speak Chinese? (write).
Упражнение 17. Прочитайте специальные вопросы:
1. When d'you get up? 2. Why did you do such a stupid thing? 3. How long do you intend being away? 4. When can you do it? 5. Where does he come from? 6. Which subject do you prefer? 7. What's your name? 8. How many cousins have you got? 9. Whose pen is this? 10. What are you studying this year? 11. What's your job? 12. What are you? 13. Where did you go to school? 14. When will it be finished? 15. What's the time, please? 16. How did you spend the morning? 17. How can I keep the children busy? 18. How many of his books have you read?
Упражнение 18. Задайте друг другу следующие специальные вопросы:
1. Where d'you study? 2. What faculty do you study at? 3 How long does it take you to get to the University? 4 Which transport d'you prefer to use? 5. Where d'you catch a bus? 6. When d'you come to the University? 7. Who is always late for the classes? Why? 8. What's the date today? 9. What's the day today? 10. What's the time, please?
Упражнение 19. Прочитайте предложения с интонацией перечисления:
1. We saw a good deal during those two weeks. We went to Venice, Florence, Rome and Naples. 2. Which writers do you have to study for your examinations? - Chaucer, Shakespeare, Milton, Pope and Swift. 3. My husband is very fond of outdoor games. He plays tennis, golf, cricket and polo. 4. What lessons did you have today? - We had Latin, Maths, French and history. 5. You could easily become an interpreter. You know English, French, German, Spanish and Russian.
Упражнение 20. Прочитайте, обращая внимание на интонацию обращений:
I’m `most ˌgrateful ˌto you, Mr. White. - Don’t `mention it, ˌdear ˌchap.
What about `Butler’s offer? – Re`fuse it, you ˌsilly ˌboy.
I `won’t have `this `man in my ˌhouse, George. - Now, be `reasonable, dear.
`Hello,| ˌTom. –`Oh, `there you are George.
`John will be `home at `7, Mrs. Reed. –`Thank you for `letting me ˌ know, Mike.
`What `happened, Tom? –`Take it ˌeasy, Mum.
I’m `off to ˌbed, Mummy. –`Good-ˌnight, dear.
ˌ Good-ˌbye, Peter. –`So ˌlong, old chap.
`Call again toˌmorrow, Ann. –`Very ˌgood, madam.
ˌ Peter,| `may I `take your ˌbook? –By `all `means, John.
`Hello,| Davy. –`Good `after`noon, Mr. White.
`John,| `look over ˌthere. –ˌWaving, dear.
There’s a `man `waving.
ˌ Mary,| `this is my old ˌfriend, John `Hicks. –`How do you `do, Mr ˌHicks?
`Oh, ˌAnn,| `may I intro`duce Mr. ˌHarvey? –`Glad to `meet you, Mr. Harvey.
ˌ John,| `haven’t you `finished that ˌbook yet? – I’ve `only `just be ˌgun it. Dad.
Упражнение 21. Прочитайте, обращая внимание на интонацию обстоятельств места и времени:
1. During the latest years our country has changed beyond recognition. 2. In 1918 the capital of the country was moved to Moscow. 3. Under tsar Fyodor Moscow was already considered to be one of the largest cities in Europe. 4. In front of you is an ancient monument of Red Square – Pokrovsky Cathedral. 5. On the left you can see the Tower of London. 6. Not far from Trafalgar Square there is a quiet little street. 7. On Tuesday we have two seminars. 8. On the 12th of May I leave for London.
Упражнение 22. Прочитайте, обращая внимание на интонацию приложений:
1. Mark Twain, the famous American writer was travelling in France. 2. The part of Great Britain, lying south of the Scottish border, (Cheviot Hills), and east of Wales is England. 3. All my family (except for me) is involved in farming. 4. Robert Burns, Scotland's bard and the world's poet was born in 1759. 5. My brother-in-law, Peter Smith, is a teacher. 6. I'm speaking of Caracus, the capital of Venezuella. 7. That's my son, the local doctor. 8. Is that your host, the famous steel magnet? 9. That's William the Conqueror. 10. I'm from Dayton, Ohio. 11. Before bills (proposed laws) can become acts (laws) they must be approved by both Houses of Parliament.
Упражнение 23. Прочитайте, обращая внимание на интонацию придаточных предложений:
1. He `went to `South Aˌmerica,| where he had `many ad`ventures in the ˌmountains. 2. She `called at her ˌmother’s,| where she `met ˌJohn. 3. He ar`rived ˌlate,| which was a `great ˌnuisance. 4. We’d have `waited for him,| if we’d `known. 5. `Let’s `go to a ˌcafé,| when the `concert is ˌover. 6. I’ll `give it ˌback,| as soon as he `wants it. 7. He’ll ˌtell you| when you ˌask him. 8. You’ll get a `bad ˌmark,| if you `don’t `read the ˌtext. 9. You’ll `do more ˌthings,| if you `speak ˌless. 10. We `have to `work ˌhard| if we `want to `pass our e`xams suˌccessfully. 11. You’ll `feel ˌbetter, if you `get up ˌearly. 12. She `won’t `make so `many ˌmistakes,| if she `learns the ˌrules. 13. They will `play ˌtennis| as `soon as he ˌcomes. 14. We shall `go to the ˌcountry| when the `weather is ˌfine. 15. All ˌlanguages are ˌgood| if they are `spoken in a `human ˌway.
Упражнение 24. Прочитайте, обращая внимание на интонацию слов автора прямой речи:
1. "We're not late I hope," I asked. 2. "Pass the sugar, please," she said in a voice just as sweet. 3. "I don't mind," my mother said with a smile. 4. "Are you ready?" he asked in an impatient tone. 5. "Can you come?" he asked quietly. 6. "Please, take one," she said invitingly. 7, "Is this for me?" he asked with surprise. 8. "Do you think it's true?" they kept on asking. 9. Ann says to Nina, "I can give you my book." 10. Peter asks me, "Are there several departments at your faculty?" 11. The girls ask me, "What is the assistant dean responsible for?" 12. The girl asks me if I've got any photos of our Institute. 13. Helen says she is fond of music. 14. Mary says, "We have a big garden in front of our house." 15. Mary says they have a big garden in front of their house.
Просодические явления. Повторение
Упражнение 1. Прочитайте тексты, объясните употребление тонов.
1. The village of Styles St. Mary was situated about two miles from the little station, and Styles Court lay a mile the other side of it. It was a still, warm day in early July. As one looked out over the flat Essex country, lying so green and peaceful under the afternoon sun, it seemed аlmost impossible to believe that, not so very far away, a great war was running it's appointed course. I felt I had suddenly strayed into another world.
2. There were four of us – George, and William Samuel Harris, and myself, and Montmorency. We were sitting in my room, smoking, and talking about how bad we were – bad from a medical point of view I mean, of course. We were all feeling seedy, and we were getting quite nervous about it. Harris said he felt such extraordinary fits of giddiness come over him at times, that he hardly knew what he was doing; and then George said that he had fits of giddiness too, and hardly knew what he was doing. With me, it was my liver that was out of order. I knew it was my liver that was out of order, because I had just been reading a patent liver-pill circular, in which were detailed the various symptoms by which a man could tell when his liver was out of order. I had them all. It is a most extraordinary thing, but I never read a patent medicine advertisement without being impelled to the conclusion that I am suffering from the particular disease therein dealt with in its most virulent form. The diagnosis seems in every case to correspond exactly with all the sensations that I have ever felt.
3. I said I'd pack. I rather pride myself on my packing. Packing is one of those many things that I feel I know more about than any other person living. (It surprises me myself, sometimes, how many of these subjects there are). I impressed the fact upon George and Harris, and told them that they had better leave the whole matter entirely to me. They fell into the suggestion with a readiness that had something uncanny about it. George put on a pipe and spread himself over the easy-chair, and Harris cocked his legs on the table and lit a cigar.
This was hardly what I intended. What I had meant, of course, was, that I should boss the job, and that Harris and George should potter about under my directions, I pushing them aside every now and then with, "Oh, you - !" "Here, let me do it." "There you are, simple enough!" – really teaching them, as you might say. Their taking it in the way they did irritated me. There is nothing does irritate me more than seeing other people sitting about doing nothing when I'm working.
I lived with a man once who used to make me mad that way. He would loll on the sofa and watch me doing things by the hour together, following me round the room with his eyes, wherever I went. He said it did him real good to look on at me, messing about. He said it made him feel that life was not an idle dream to be gaped and yawned through, but a noble task, full of duty and stern work. He said he often wondered now how he could have gone on before he met me, never having anybody to look at while they worked.
4. By and by, when we got up, we turned over the truck the gang had stole off of the wreck, and found boots, and blankets, and clothes, and all sorts of other things, and a lot of books, and a spyglass, and three boxes of seegars. We hadn't ever been this rich before in neither of our lives. The seegars was prime. We laid off all the afternoon in the woods talking, and me reading the books, and having a general good time. I told Jim all about what happened inside the wreck and at the ferryboat, and I said these kinds of things were adventures; but he said he didn't want no more adventures. He said that when I went in the texas and he crawled back to get on the raft and found her gone he nearly died, because he judged it was all up with him anyway it could be fixed; for if he didn't get saved he would get drownded; and if he did get saved, whoever saved him would send him back home so as to get the reward, and then Miss Watson would sell him South, sure. Well, he was right; he was most always right; he had an uncommon level head for a nigger.
Упражнение 2. Прочитайте диалоги, используя изученные интонационные модели в соответствии с коммуникативным контекстом.
– It’s nearly midnight. Let’s take a taxi, Jane.
– But it’s expensive, isn’t it?
– This is the magazine they gave me.
– The fashion magazine?
– May I have a look at the vase?
– Be careful with it.
– I really must be going now.
– Pity! Can't you stay a little longer?
– Thanks awfully. But I'm late already.
– Oh, dear! What a shame!
– We'll meet on Friday.
– Fine. Welcome back!
– Hallo, Ann. Pleased to meet you! My best congratulations! They say you've passed your exams successfully.
– Thank you very much. I was lucky, but Lily has got a bad mark in history.
– Fancy that! Poor thing! I'll help her with the history.
– How sweet of you!
– Johnny, here's a good piece of bread and butter.
– Thank you, aunty.
– That's good, Johnny. I like to hear little boys say "thank you", dear.
– Oh, aunty, if you want to hear me say it again, then put some jam on that piece of bread.
– Grandpa, would you like me to give you a new pipe for your birthday?
– That's very nice of you, Mary, but I've got a pipe.
– Don't think you have. Grandpa. I've just broken it.
– Is that Nora? asked Willy.
– Yes, Nora is speaking, asnwered the girl.
– Marry me, Nora, and marry me quickly, he pleaded.
– Yes, I will, — was the reply, But who is speaking?
– Is anything the matter, Jenny?
– Not really, Mike. I just feel nervous about my exam tomorrow.
– But surely, Jenny, you’ve done enough work for it.
– Yes, more or less. But I’m afraid I’ll get everything mixed up. I always feel nervous before exams.
– Take it easy, Jenny, I’m sure you’ll do very well.
– What are you going to do on Sunday?
– I'm going to watch a football match.
– If I were you, I'd better go to the country.
– I don't mind if we come together.
– Of course, if you like, I'll be glad if we come together. We'll go to the country if the weather is fine. If it rains we'll stay at home and watch a football match on TV.
– I suppose, you remember the Browns' house in the village?
– Yes, of course; we used to go and play there when we were kids. By the way, who's living there now?
– Some people from London. As a matter of fact, they aren't living here permanently. They only spend the week-ends here, as a rule.
– How d'you get on with them?
– Well, you see, I've only met them a few times. They are a pleasant young couple, as far as I can tell.
– What shall we have for supper?
– Would you like bacon and eggs?
– No, not bacon and eggs tonight. What else have we got?
– There are some potatoes, and lots of tomatoes. We could have baked potatoes, and a tomato salad.
– I had a baked potato yesterday.
– Well then, you can buy some fish and chips, from the shop at the end of the road.
– OK. Shall we have a bottle of wine?
– No, just a jug of water.
– Mmmm…. I’m afraid I didn’t like the bedrooms very much, with one on the first floor and another two in that converted loft.
– I suppose you are right. But the lounge is tiny. You couldn’t get more than five people in it.
– And it’s quite a big garden. And that’s a lovely mature apple tree right in the middle. Lots space for your vegetables. So what do you think?
– It’s quite a long way from the station, isn’t it? If we bought it, we’d have to drive to the station, we couldn’t walk.
– What about the outside? What did you think of that?
– Have you ever wondered how many people there are in the world who speak English?
– I’m sure, it’s quite a number and I’m one of them.
– As for me I study English too and it’s my favourite subject, I should say.
– I know it perfectly well that learning English nowadays is a must. English is widespread. In fact, it is represented in every continent and in the three main oceans: the Atlantic, the Indian and the Pacific.
– Really, it’s an interesting world we live in. By the way the modern world is becoming bigger and wider, but on the other hand, it’s becoming closer thanks to international relations. It means that we need a global language.
– To my mind, English has better chances to become a language of international communication. So why not learn it?
– It's common in Britain for young people to prefer to live separately from their parents and begin with tiny flats which they rent sharing with a friend.
– We have the same practice here unless young people are students and live in a residence of a University campus.
– Do you live in a campus, Dave?
– No, I still live with my parents.
– Isn't it annoying sometimes to have parents supervising you all the time?
– Not in the least. Not with our family at least. Father and Mother encourage us to be independent, so it's up to us to decide what would be best for me or Betty as individuals.
– What do you think of that place? Not bad, was it?
– Oh, it was lovely, it was really lovely. A very pretty place, a beautiful modernized cottage.
– Mmm. Not as big as the house we’ve got at the moment, though.
– No, not as big, it’s true, but it’s in a much better location, with countryside all around, and lovely views from the bedrooms.
– It’s quite a long way from the station, isn’t it? If we bought it, we’d have to drive to the station, we couldn’t walk.
– That’s wouldn’t matter. You can walk in summer if it’s a nice day. It’s a lovely walk across the park.
– I’ll tell you one thing I didn’t like, actually, and that was the low ceiling everywhere, especially in the kitchen.
– What's your name?
– My name's Betty.
– Where d'you come from?
– I'm from Aberdeen.
– Which school d'you go to?
– I go to a local comprehensive school.
– When d'you start school?
– At the age of five.
– What kind of school can you go after primary school?
– We can go to a comprehensive school, a secondary modern school, a grammar school or a private school.
– What kind of school is the most popular one?
– I think a comprehensive school.
Упражнение 3. Прочитайте диалоги, используя изученные интонационные модели.
An Interesting Film
Bill: Is Tim in?
Lyn : Is he coming to the pictures?
Mrs. Smith: Tim’s ill.
Bill: Here he is! Hello, Tim.
Tim: Hello, Bill.
Lyn: Are you ill, Tim?
Tim: Is it an interesting film?
Lyn : It’s “Big Jim and the Indians”.
Bill: And it begins in six minutes.
Mrs. Smith : If you’re ill, Tim…
Tim : Quick! Or we’ll miss the beginning of the film!
Morning and Evening
– What time do you get up as a rule?
– Generally about half past seven.
– Why so early?
– Because I usually catch an early train up to town.
– When do you get to the office?
– Normally about nine o'clock.
– Do you stay in town all day?
– Sometimes I do and sometimes I don't.
– What do you usually do in the evening?
– We generally stay at home. Once or twice a week we go to a theatre or to the picture. We went to the pictures last night and saw a very interesting film. Occasionally we go to a dance.
– Do you like dancing?
– Yes, very much. Do you dance?
– I used to when I was younger but not very often now. I'm getting too old.
– Too old? Nonsense! You don't look more then 50.
– As a matter of fact I'm nearly sixty.
– Really? You certainly don't look it.
– I'm glad to hear it. Are you doing anything special tonight? If not, what about coming with me to my club? You'd get to know quite a lot of interesting people there.
– I should love to but today happens to be our wedding anniversary and we're going out tonight to celebrate.
– Well, my heartiest congratulations!
– Thank you very much. I could manage to come along tomorrow night if that would suit you.
– Yes. Excellent. Let's make it round about eight o'clock.
– Very well. Thanks.
Busy in the Kitchen
Billy : Mummy! Are you busy?
Mother: Yes, I’m in the Kitchen.
Billy : Can I go swimming in Chichester with Jim this morning?
Mother : Jim?
Billy : Jim English. He’s living with Mr. and Mrs. Willis in the village- Spring Cottage.
Mother: Isn’t it a bit chilly to go swimming?
Billy : What’s this? Can I pinch a bit of it?
Mother : Oh, Billy, you little pig! It’s figgy pudding. Get your fingers out of it!
Billy: Women are so silly! I only dipped a little finger in.
Mother: Well, it’s a filthy littlefinger. Here, tip this chicken skin into the bin and I’ll give you a biscuit.
An Е xpensive Holiday
Eddie: Hello, Ellen! Hello, Ben! Hello, Jenny!
Ben : Hello, Eddie! Have a cigarette!
Eddie: Thanks, Ben.
Ellen : Help yourself to whiskey!
Jenny: It’s on the shelf.
Ben : How did you spend your holiday, Eddie?
Eddie : I went to America with a friend.
Everybody : Well!
Ellen : We’re all jealous.
Ben : Was it expensive?
Eddie : Yes. Very. I’ve spent everything.
Jenny : Haven’t you any money left?
Eddie : Yes, Jenny! Ten pence!
The End of Adventure
Ken: Ted! Thank heaven! I was getting desperate.
Ted : Hello there, Ken. Where are Jeff and the rest of the men?
Ken : They left me in the tent with some eggs and somebread, and off they went.
Ted: Where were they heading?
Ken : West. In that direction. They saidthey’d bury the treasure under the dead elm – you remember, by the bend in the fence – and get back by sunset.
Ted : All ten of them went?
Ken : They said the chest was heavy.
Ted : They left – when?
Ken : Yesterday, between ten and eleven.
Ted : And you let them?
Ken : There were ten of them…
Ted : Well, my friend, I reckon that’s the end of the adventure. We’ll never see the
treasure chest or any of those ten men again
A Bad Hijacker
Bill : Alice! Perhaps, thatpassenger is a hijacker.
Alice: Which passenger, Ann? That sad man with a camera? He’s wearing black slacks and a jacket.
Bill : No. That fat lady with a big black handbag in her left hand.
Alice: Is she standing next to the lavatory?
Bill : Yes. She is traveling to Amsterdam.
Alice: You’re mad, Anne, I don’t understand.
Bill : You see, when she went into the lavatory she didn’t have that handbag in her hand, and now she…
Fat lady : Everybody stand! I’m a hijacker. And in this handbag I have a…
Handbag : BANG!
Fawns, Horses and a Tortoise
Paul: Any more of these awful autumn storms, George, and we’ll be short of corn. I
ought to have bought somemore in Northport.
George: This morning, just before dawn, I thought I saw signs of a thaw. I was sure…
Paul: Ssh! Behind that door there are four fawns that were born in a storm. They’re re
all warm in the straw now.
George: Poor little fawns! Paul, what’s that snorting next door?
Paul: Those are the horses’ stalls. They’re snorting at my daughter’s tortoise. It always crawls around in the straw.
George: If Claud saw us walking across the lawn… He’s an awful bore about his lawn.
Oh, Lord, we’re caught! There isClaud! Now we’re for it!
Sports Reports from Channel 4
Alice: This morning the Roarers football teamarrived back from York. Paul Short is
our sports reporter, and he was at the airport.
Paul: Good morning. This is Paul Short. All the footballers are walking towards me.
Here’s George Ball, the goalkeeper. Good morning, George.
George: Good morning. Are you a reporter?
Paul: Yes, I’m from channel 4. Please tell our audience about the football match with
George: Well, it was awful. We lost. And the score was four, forty-four. But it wasn’t
Paul: Whose fault was it?
George: The forwards.
Paul: The forwards?
George: Yes. The forwards. They were always falling down or losing the ball.
The Worst Nurse
B.: Nurse! I’m thirsty!
H.: Nurse! My head hurts!
H.: Curse these nurses!
B.: Nurse Sherman always wears such dirty shirts.
H.: And such short skirts.
B.: She never arrives at work early.
H.: She and… er… Nurse Turner weren’t at workon Thursday, were they?
B.: No, they weren’t.
H.: Nurse Sherman is the worst nurse in the ward, isn’t she?
B.: No, she isn’t. She’s the worst nurse in the world!
What Time Does the Plane Leave?
What's the time?
Emily: Ten past two, dear.
Robert: When does the plane leave?
Emily: Not until a quarter to four.
Robert: Why did we get here so early?
Emily: Because you said we must allow plenty of time for traffic jams and accidents.
Robert: Where's my briefcase? What have you done with my briefcase?
Emily: It's there, dear, between your feet.
Robert: Emily! Where are you going?
Emily: I'm going to ask that gentleman what they were announcing over the loudspeaker.
Robert: Which gentleman?
Emily: That man over there with all the packages.
Robert : Who is he?
Emily: I don't know. But he looked as though he was listening to the announcement... Yes, I was afraid so. The plane's delayed. It won't be leaving till five.
Robert: How did he manage to hear it if we didn't?
Emily: Because he was listening. You were talking too much to me.
Robert: What do you mean, I was talking too much?
Emily: Oh dear. Never mind.
Robert: What time is it now, Emily?
Making a Pass at Martha
Charlie: The dance doesn’t start till half past, Martha. Let’s park the car under the arch
by Farmer Palmer’s barn. It’s not far. Ah, here we are. There’s the farm cart.
Martha: Ooh, Charlie, it’s dark!
Charlie: The stars are sparkling. My heart is enchanted. Martha, you are marvellous!
Martha: Your father’s car is draughty. Pass me my scarf.
Charlie: Rather let me clasp you in myarms, Martha, my darling.
Martha: Ah, Charlie! Your moustache is all nasty and sharp. I can’t help laughing.
Aren’t you starved? Here, have half a Mars Bar. Ssh! There’s a car passing.
Charlie: Keep calm, can’t you? It’s only Sergeant Barker. He plays darts in the bar of
the Star and Garter. Martha… darling…
Martha: Don’t be daft, Charlie! You can’t start making a pass till after the dance!
In a Good School
Luke: Good afternoon, girls!
G.: Good afternoon, Miss Luke.
Luke: This afternoon we’re going to learn howto cook soup. Open your books at unit
Prue: Excuse me, Miss Luke.
Luke: Yes, Prue?
Prue: There’s some chewing gum on your shoe.
Luke: Who threw their chewing gum on the floor? Was it you, Prue?
Prue: No, Miss Luke, it was June.
Prue: June Cook.
June: It wasn’t me, stupid, it was Sue.
Sue: It was you!
June: It wasn’t me, you stupid fool. My mouth’s full of chewing gum. Look, Miss Luke!
Sue: Stop pulling my hair, June. It was you!
Luke: Excuse me! You’re being very rude! You two nuisancescan stay in school this
afternoon instead of going to the swimming pool.
I've Won a Prize!
Jennifer! Guess what! I've won a prize! , Jennifer: A prize? What sort of
Mi с hae1: A super prize. Dinner for two at Maxime's!
Jennifer: You are clever! What was the prize for? I mean, what did you do to win a dinner for two at Maxime's?
Michael: Well, you're not to laugh – I went in for a competition at the Adult Education Centre – a cooking contest.
Jennifer: You won a prize in a cooking contest! I've got to laugh. Michael, you can't even boil an egg!
Michael: I can boil an egg. I can scramble one, too. Most deliciously. Of course, I'm not a Cordon Bleu cook, like you.
Jennifer: Well, why haven't I ever won a cooking competition?
Michael: Probably because you never go in for competitions. I'm glad you didn't go in for this one. You might have won, and then you would have had to invite me to dinner at Maxime's!
Miss Woodfull'll Be Furious
Rachel: “How much wood would a woodpeckerpeck if a woodpecker could peck wood?” Goodness, that’s difficult!
Mabel: Looks a good book. Let me have a look.
Rachel: It’s full of puzzles, and, riddles.
Mabel: Let me look, Rachel!
Rachel: Mabel! You are awful! You just look it!
Mabel: I asked if I could have a look. Now push off. I’m looking at the book.
Rachel: You’re a horrible bully!
Mabel: And you’re just a miserable pudding!
Rachel: I should have kept it my room.
Mabel: Oh, shush, for goodness’ sake! Anyway, I shouldn’t have thought you could
have understood the book, you’re so backward.
Rachel: You’re hateful! Give my book! Oh, careful, Mabel! It’s Miss Woodfull’s book.
I’ll get into terrible trouble if you – oh, look! You are awful! She’ll be furious!
Mabel: Well, you shouldn’t havepulled, should you?
Snow in October
Joan: Joe! Joe! Joe! Hello!
Joe: Oh! What is it, Joan?
Joan: Look out of the window.
Joe: No. My eyes are closed, and I’m going to go to sleep again.
Joan: Don’t go to sleep, Joe. Look at the snow.
Joe: Snow? But it’s only October. I know there’s no snow.
Joan: Come to the window, Joe.
Joe: You’re joking, Joan. There’s no snow.
Joan: OK. I’ll put my coat on and go out and make a snowball and throw it at your nose, Joe Jones.
Howard’s Found an Owl
Howard: Brownie, if you vow not to make a sound, I’ll show you an owl that I’ve found.
Brownie: An owl? You’ve found an owl?
Howard: Don’t shout too loudly. We don’t want a crowd to gather round the house. Tie
that hound up outside the cowshed. He’s so bouncy and he’s bound to growl.
Brownie: There. I’ve wound his lead round the plough. No amount of bouncing will get
him out now.
Howard: Now, not a sound. It’s down by the fountain where the cows browse.
Brownie: Wow, Howard! It’s a brown owl! It’s worth about a thousand pounds down in
Howard: No doubt. But my proud owl is homeward bound – south to the Drowned.
Myra: Hello, Mike!
Mike: Hello, Myra. Hello, Violet. You’re looking nice, Violet.
Mike: Would you like someice-cream, Violet?
Violet: No, thanks, Mike. I’m busy typing. Talk to me some other time. I have ninety-
nine pages to type by Friday.
Myra: Never mind. Do you like riding, Violet?
Mike: Would you like to ride with me tonight, Violet?
Violet: Not tonight, Mike. I’m going for a drive with Nigel.
Myra: What about Friday?
Violet: I’m going climbing with Miles.
Mike: Hm! Oh, All right. Bye.
Myra: Violet, he’s put something behind your typewriter.
Violet: Is it something nice, Myra?
Myra: No, it’s a spider.
Mr. Pring: Bang! Bang! Bang! What are the Kings doing at seven o’clock on Sunday morning?
Mrs. Pring: Well, Mr. King is singing.
Mr. Pring: Yes, but what’s the banging noise?
Mrs. Pring: He’s standing on a ladder and banging some nails into the wall with a hammer. Now, he’s hanging some strong string on the nails.
Mr. Pring: And what’s Mrs. King doing?
Mrs. Pring: She’s bringing something pink for Mr. King to drink. Now she’s putting it under the ladder, and… Ohh!
Mr. Pring: What’s happening?
Mrs. Pring: The ladder’s falling.
Mr. Pring: What’s Mr. King doing?
Mrs. Pring: He’s hanging from the string. He’s holding the string in his fingers and he’s shouting to Mrs. King.
Mr. Pring: And is she helping him?
Mrs. Pring: No. She’s running to our house. Now she’s ringing our bell.
Mr. Pring: I’m not going to answer it. I’m sleeping.
Twenty Foreign Visitors
Wilma: What are you giving yourforeign visitors on Wednesday evening, Winnie? How many – twelve, is it?
Winnie: Twenty. Twelve of William’s Swedish representatives, eight of them with their wives.
Wilma: And what will you feed them on?
Winnie: Well, we’ll start with watercress soup, then fish in a white wine sauce flavoured with fennel and chives, followed by stuffed veal served with cauliflower and a very wide variety of vegetables.
Wilma : Mmm… My mouth’s watering!
Winnie: For sweet we’ll have fresh fruit soufflé covered with walnuts. And lots of whipped cream, of course, and vanilla wafers.
Wilma: And finally coffee? What a feast! I wish I was going to be with you!
Were You at Home Last Night?
Sergeant : Good evening, Sir. Mr Holmes?
Holmes: Good evening, officer. Yes, that's right –John Holmes. Won't you come in?
Sergeant: Thank you. May I ask you a few questions?
Holmes: Yes, of course. Won't you sit down?
Sergeant: Thank you. It's about last night. Were you at home, Mr Holmes?
Holmes: Yes, Sergeant, I was, actually. I wasn't feeling very well.
Sergeant: Were you alone?
Holmes: Er, yes. My wife had gone to the cinema with a friend.
Sergeant: Did you go out at all?
Holmes: No, I stayed in all evening – that is, except for a few minutes when I popped out to post a letter.
Sergeant: Do you remember what time this was?
Holmes: Yes, it was about – um – half past eight.
Sergeant: What time did you say? Half past eight? Anybody see you when you – er – popped out for 5 minutes to post your letter?
Holmes: No, I don't think so. Oh yes, just a minute. The caretaker said 'good evening'.
Sergeant: The caretaker, Mr Holmes? Mr Holmes, the caretaker was murdered last night.
– Good afternoon, Mrs. White, how are you?
– Very well indeed, thank you, and how are you?
– Quite well, thank you. Won't you sit down. Excuse me, please. I think that's my niece at the door.
– Hello, Betty dear! I'm so glad to see you. You do look well. I don't think you've met each other before. Let me introduce you. This is my niece, Miss Smith. Mr. White, Mrs. White.
– How do you do?
– How do you do?
– And now let's have some tea. How do you like your tea, Mrs. White, strong or weak?
– Not too strong, please and one lump of sugar. I like my tea rather sweet, but my husband prefers his without sugar.
– Well, what's the news, Mr. White? How's business?
– Pretty good, thank you. And how are things with you?
– Well, not too good, I'm afraid, and going from bad to worse. In fact, it's the worst year we've had for a long time.
– I'm sorry to hear that. I hope things will soon improve.
– Yes. Let's hope for the best.
Упражнение 4. Прочитайте текты, используя изученные интонационные модели.
The sea that had been so calm when we'd first started floating was now an angry one, full of swimming waves that meant danger. I saw John about twenty-five feet from me. "Hey, John," I shouted, "where'd this current come from?"
He managed to swim closer to me before he attempted to answer. "I don't know where the current came from, Janie, but I do know this: it's carried us so far out that I can't see the raft!"
The raft! I'd forgotten all about the raft. But as another wave splashed over me and at the same time a strong undercurrent pulled at my feet, I became conscious of needing the raft.
I looked around in all directions and could see nothing but waves! I felt a moment of panic, then John was by my side, his hand on my shoulder, half supporting and half asking for support.
"Take it easy, Janie. Remember what you learned when you were first taught how to swim. Let's just take it easy".
I tried to breathe slowly and deeply. Putting my hand over my eyes to shield them from the glare of the sun, I looked as far as I could in every direction. At last I saw the raft.
"John, there – to the left of us – the raft. See – can't you see? I know that’s it – it must be!"
John followed my glance. He stared and stared and it seemed minutes before he answered. "Maybe it is, Janie, but I'm not sure. Do you think we should take a chance on it?"
On Thursday morning Nick did not get up until after nine o'clock, and he spent at least half an hour having a leisurely bath and shave before dressing in jeans and sweater. He went downstairs to the kitchen where his mother was drying dishes and said, "Morning, Mum."
She said, "There's tea in the pot. What would you like to eat?"
"Don't you bother. I'll just get myself some cereal. That's all I want."
She finished putting away the crockery and went into the sitting-room where he could hear her moving about, dusting and polishing.
She called, "Have you been to the Job Centre yet?"
Without bothering to sit down he took a mouthful of cereal from the bowl he had filled.
"No, not yet."
More sounds of housework; then she said, as if speaking to herself, though he knew the words were intended for his ears, "I suppose he's too proud to go on the dole."
He went on eating.
She came back to the kitchen. "Your dad's worried about you, Nick. He's losing sleep. It's not right. He was tired when he went to work this morning. I could tell, and I don't like it. Driving a bus when you're tired and worried, it's not safe. For the other people as well as him."
Everyone who visits New York City today wants to see Rockerfeller Centre. It is one of the most popular places of interest. But what is Rockerfeller Centre? Rockerfeller Centre is really a small city within itself. There are thousands of offices, all kinds of stores, restaurants and small shops. The buildings are very large, very high. The style of the buildings is modern. There is little decoration. The architects who planned them tried to do two things. First they tried to make the buildings look like one group. Second they tried at the same time to make each building a little different in form from the others.
There are many facts and stories about Rockerfeller Centre. Here is one of them about John Rockerfeller, who together with some other companions began work on Rockerfeller Centre in 1930. It took about ten years to complete all of the original buildings.
One day he was walking along the street where the construction had just begun. He wanted to see the work which was going on. There was a high fence around the construction site. He tried to look through the fence but could see nothing. Just then a policeman came along. "Move along," said the policeman. "You can't stand here." "I was just trying to watch the work," said Mr. Rockerfeller. "Move along," repeated the policeman. "I am John Rockerfeller, "said Mr. Rockerfeller. "Sure, and I am President Roosevelt," said the policeman. "Now move along, mister. And don't give me any more trouble." Mr. Rockerfeller went to his office and gave an order to cut holes in all the fences at the level of a man's eyes. Today this is the general custom in New York City. These holes are for the convenience of anyone who wants to stop and watch the work as long as he likes.
Andy Barton was in a bad mood. It was Friday, and at six o'clock his favourite programme "Travel with us" was on TV. Andy liked to get home in good time for that. But then, just as he was leaving the office a little early, a customer rang up with a few complaints. The customer complained steadily for the next fifteen minutes! "I can still get home in time if I hurry," Andy told himself as he dashed out of the office. But then, as he drove off in his car, he noticed that he was almost out of petrol. "I'll have to stop at Fenton's," Andy thought. He hated Fenton's because it was a self-service petrol station. "You do all the work yourself, but you pay the same for the petrol," he used to grumble.
But at Fenton's things went wrong again! The pump was not working properly and it took ages to get the petrol. It was four minutes to six by the time Andy jumped back into his car and drove off. But at two minutes past six he was sitting in front of the television, watching "Travel with us". He was on his way to Japan!
Then the phone rang. "Shall I answer it?" Andy thought. He tried to concentrate on Japan and forget the phone. But it kept on ringing and finally he picked it up.
"Mr. Barton?" a voice said. "Fenton's Garage here."
"Fenton's?" said Andy. "Why, I was at your place only a few minutes ago, getting some petrol. Did I leave something behind or what?" "No, you didn't, Mr. Barton," the voice went on. "That's just the trouble! You didn't leave anything behind! You went off without paying for your petrol, you see! Now normally, when that happens, we ring up the police. But luckily I recognized you because I live on the same street as you, and I knew it was a mistake."
"I'm really very sorry," Andy said.
"Oh, that's all right, Mr. Baron. These things happen! But could you come round now and pay for your petrol? And please hurry! We close at half past six!"
The silence of the Reference Library was broken only by an occasional cough and now and then by the scarcely audible sound of pages being turned over. There were about twenty people in the room, most of them with their heads bent over their books. The assistant librarian who was in charge of the room sat at a desk in one corner. She glanced at Phillip as he came in, then went on with her work.
Phillip had not been to this part of the library before. He walked around the room almost on tiptoe, afraid of disturbing the industrious readers with his heavy shoes. The shelves were filled with thick volumes: dictionaries in many languages, encyclopedias, atlases, biographies and other works of reference. He found nothing that was likely to interest him, until he came to a small section of photography, which was one of his hobbies. The books in this section were on a high shelf out of his reach, so he had to fetch a small ladder in order to get one down. Unfortunately, as he was climbing down the ladder, the book he had chosen slipped from his grasp and fell to the floor with a loud crash. Twenty pairs of eyes looked up at him simultaneously annoyed by this unaccustomed disturbance. Phillip felt himself go red as he picked up his book, which did not seem to have been damaged by its fall.
He had just sat down when he found the young lady assistant standing alongside him. “You must be more careful when you are handling these books,” she said severely. Satisfied that she had done her duty, she turned to go back to her desk. Then a sudden thought struck her. “By the way, how old are you?” she asked Phillip. “Thirteen,” he told her. ”You're not allowed in here under the age of fourteen, you know,” the assistant said. “Didn't you see the notice on the door?” Phillip shook his head. He expected the assistant to ask him to leave. Instead, in a more kindly tone, she said: “Well, never mind. But make sure that you don't disturb the other readers again, otherwise I shall have to ask you to leave.”
Once upon a time, and in a country a long way off, there was a king who was very ill. All the doctors of the court attended him but, in spite of all they could do, he got worse instead of better. At last they called in a famous doctor from another country. He came, looked at the king, and then, looking very grave, said, "Your Majesty, there is only one thing that can help you". "What is that?" said the king.
"You must sleep for one night", said the doctor, "in the shirt of a happy man".
So the king sent two of his chief servants to find a happy man and to bring back his shirt.
Well, they went first to the richest man in the city, and asked him if he was a happy man.
"Happy!" he said. "How can a man be happy with all my money?"
So they went to the king's Chief Minister, the most powerful man in the country, except for the king.
"Are you a happy man?" they said.
"Don't be silly", he answered. "How do you think a Chief Minister can be a happy man?"
So they went all over the country looking high and low for a happy man but never finding one. They were returning home, tired and miserable, when they saw a beggar, sitting by the roadside. He had made a little fire, and was frying some sausages in a frying-pan, and singing merrily as he watched his supper cooking.
They went up to him and one of them said, "You sound very happy, my friend".
"Of course, I'm happy", he said.
They could hardly believe their ears. With one voice they said, "We want your shirt".
The beggar roared with laughter.
"I'm sorry, gentlemen", he said, "but I haven't got a shirt".
Jack, an old sailor, who had spent many years in the Navy, was walking along a country road when he came to a farm-house. The farmer was standing at the door and Jack said, “I have been walking all day looking for work. Will you give me a job?”
“Have you ever done any farm work? ” said the farmer.
“No”, said Jack. “I have been a sailor all my life, but I will do any job you like to give me”.
“All right”, said the farmer. “I’ll give you a chance. Do you see that flock of sheep on the hillside?”
“Yes”, answered Jack.
“Well,” said the farmer. “Get them all through that gate into the yard.”
“Right”, said Jack. “I’ll do that.”
About an hour later the farmer went to the yard. Jack was leaning on the gate wiping his forehead.
“Did you get them all in?” said the farmer.
“Yes”, said Jack. The farmer looked and saw that all the sheep were gathered in the yard and the gate was shut. And then the farmer saw a hare running round among the sheep. The sailor saw what he was looking at.
“Yes”, he said, “that little fellow gave me more trouble than all the rest put together”.
A funny thing happened to me last Friday. I went to London to do some shopping. I wanted to get some Christmas presents, and I needed to find some books for my course at college (you see, I am a student). I caught an early train to London, so by early afternoon I’d bought everything that I wanted. When I got to the station I found out that my train had just gone. I bought an evening newspaper and wandered over to the station buffet. At that time of the day it’s nearly empty, so I bought a coffee and a packet of biscuits. There were plenty of empty tables and I found one near the window. I sat down and began doing the crossword. I always enjoy doing crossword puzzles.
After a few minutes a man sat down opposite me. There was nothing special about him, except that he was very tall. In fact he looked like a typical city businessman. I didn’t say anything and carried on with my crossword. Suddenly he reached across the table, opened my packet of biscuits, took one and popped it into his mouth. I couldn’t believe my eyes! I was too shocked to say anything. Anyway, I didn’t want to make a fuss, so I decided to ignore it. I just took a biscuit myself and went back to my crossword. After a couple of minutes, I casually put out my hand, took the last biscuit and glanced at the man. He was staring at me furiously. Then he stood up and hurried out of the buffet. I felt very relieved and decided to wait two or three minutes before going myself. I finished my coffee, folded the newspaper and stood up. And there, on the table, where my newspaper had been, was my packet of biscuits.
It was a very quiet, sunny and very sleepy Sunday afternoon and I was sitting out in the garden reading the Sunday newspapers, not expecting anyone at all. The children were out playing and I thought I’d have a couple of hours of peace and quiet. Suddenly I heard a large vehicle arriving at the end of the garden and then I heard a loud knocking at the door in front of the house. I went out and saw about twelve elderly ladies wearing their Sunday best clothes, hats and white cardigans and carrying their handbags, looking very happy and very friendly. They said, “Well, we are sorry, we hope we are not late, but we couldn’t find the house very easily”. And then one of them said very helpfully, “Well, your husband was very kind in inviting us to tea”. So I thought, “Good gracious, my husband must have gone mad or forgotten to tell me”. So I asked them into the house, and they started to take off their coats. They sat down and started chatting quite happily. They asked me about my children, and I did have children, they talked about how beautiful the village was, and it was indeed beautiful. Then my husband appeared, but they didn’t speak to him. I thought this was surprising because they said they’d been invited by him. And he looked a bit shocked to see them all sitting there. And then we quickly discovered that it was the wrong husband and the wrong house and they were in fact expected at a house on the other side of the village.
Six years ago, when I was a student, I was short of money. So once a week I used to go home to see my parents and get a decent meal. Although I had a good relation with my mother, I never got on well with my father. I could never live up to his high expectations of me.
One day I did a terrible thing. I stole some money from him. I first started off by asking him if he could lend me ten pounds. He refused saying he had already given me enough and it was time I became more responsible with money. You know what it is like to be a student. I’d run out of money and wanted to take a girl out. When he refused, I accused him of being mean and we had a terrible row. He left the house and I was so angry that I stole a few pounds from his wallet.
When he found out that the money was gone, he understood who had taken it and banned me from the house. Since then I have returned but he has never really forgiven me and still looks down on me for what I did. My mother is very upset and I really have to work towards creating a happy relationship with my father for her and our sakes. Half of me wants to say “Sorry, Dad” while the other half still thinks he is ridiculous for having kept his attitude up for so long. How can I bridge our endless misunderstanding?
The classrooms were dull. They smelt of sand, disinfectant, and chalky blackboard dusters. There was a sour chill in the cloakrooms. The walls of some of the classrooms were made of varnished partitions through which you could hear the class next door slogging through the alphabet or the Lord’s Prayer or “Thirty Days hath September”. On the walls hang religious pictures, maps of the Empire, photographs from Child Education, a large calendar, and the alphabet. On the window-sills were bulb vases of dark green glass, and a saucer or two with carrot tops growing in them. There was nothing of the gaiety and freedom and liveliness of an infant’s class today, but I think the class as the whole was a happy one for we liked our jolly teacher, though I don’t believe she taught us very much. I learned to write, painfully gripping the thin ribbed shank of a new school pen, by copying out dozens of times set phrases like “Virtue is its Own Reward”. Those capital Rs were a trial. I remember the funny little exercise books we had to do our writing in, with two very widely-spaced lines to every small page: it was the devil of a job to hold it down when your steel nib was pressing and pricking the paper. The teacher would walk round, her fat arms comfortably folded over her bust, and tell us to make all our letters slope the same way. This was something I could never do, and it always amazed me, when she extended my down and up strokes with her blue pencil, to see how far from parallel they were. I thought she went out of her way to make my handwriting look worse than it really was.
My father always encouraged us to read. We had a lot of books at home and I was very lucky to grow up in such a house of books. Of course, as a teenager I always felt that when my father advised you to do something you should resist as much as possible, so, when my father used to tell me to read the English classics I resisted. It was only when I reached my late teens that I started to read them and began to think that they were good. I went to my first dance when I was 17. I thought that I looked so gorgeous that I could hardly keep my eyes off myself. I wore a blue dress that my cousin had lent me, with a big blue velvet band set down in the middle of the dress to let it out. I wore earrings which had made sores in my ears when I was “rehearsing” for the dance, so I had put sticking plaster on my ears and painted it blue to match the dress. I must have looked absolutely horrific. Nobody – not one single person – danced with me that night. That was a black time. There weren’t many dark passages in my childhood but that most definitely was one.
In class I was very slow, untidy and silent. I trembled with apprehension nearly all the time. Sums were a mystery to me: I just couldn’t add or multiply. The squared paper on which we did sums still makes me unhappy whenever I use it. Reading lessons were a little better, because I didn’t mind books. When I first started school, I was able to read fairly well, but there were occasional words that baffled me and held me up. After a few weeks of patient struggling, a dam seemed to burst inside me head: I heard myself reading big words aloud, without much hesitation, and soon I found I could read fluently. The last word to puzzle me was “laugh”. I remember poring over this odd word in my reader. The sentence ran: “And so the princess began to laugh and laugh”. “What could it be that the princess had begun to do? I was reading aloud, the class listening hard to catch my words, for I had a very soft voice. I came to the first “laugh”, got my tongue round the “I”, voiced the “a” and – it was like a miracle! – the “f” sound followed as if instinctively. “Laugh”! I said, very slowly. As the other two “laughs” came with increasing confidence I really felt like laughing myself, for the first time since I had started school.
I have a very clear earliest memory. I, the first born, was three and a half and my mother was expecting another child. I was constantly asking God to send me a new brother or sister. The “me” was important because I loved receiving presents. I was furious when the baby arrived, because all the attention moved from me to this small red-faced thing in a cot. It was a great disappointment to me. I had been praying for this moment and now here was a “thing” which kept on crying with everybody saying how beautiful it was. “Honestly”, I said, “I would have preferred a rabbit!”
I got very used to walking as a child. I was the eldest of four so there was always somebody in a pram to be wheeled out for a walk. My mother had this view that if she made our home a centre for lots of our friends to come to then she would know where we all were and she would not have to worry about us. So our house became a meeting point for children of all ages. My mother didn’t have much of a home life when she was young: her parents had died when she was a child and she had been brought up by relations. I think that she tried to make up for this by ensuring that her own family would be a very definite and important entity. I know that there is always the danger that you look back too sympathetically – rose coloured spectacles and all that – but my childhood was a great joy.
One afternoon just before Christmas an old gentleman was wandering through the town centre. The gaily-illuminated shops were packed with good things and crowded with cheerful shoppers. The children were gazing in wonder at all the toys on display in the windows. Suddenly the old gentleman spotted a dirty little boy sitting on the pavement, weeping bitterly. When the kind old gentleman asked him why he was crying, the little boy told him that he had lost a ten penny piece that his uncle had given him. Thrusting his hand into his pocket the old gentleman pulled out a handful of coins. He picked out a shiny, new ten penny piece coin and handed it to the child. “Thank you very much”, said the little boy, and, drying his eyes, he cheered up at once. An hour, or so later the old man was making his way back home by the same route, to his astonishment he saw the same dirty little boy in precisely the same spot, crying just as bitterly as before. He went up to the boy and asked him if he had lost the ten penny he had given him as well. The little boy told him that actually he had not lost the second coin, but he still could not find his first ten pence. “If I could find my own ten pence, he said tearfully, I’d have twenty pence now”.
I think that the worst experience that I have ever had was in my first year of teaching, and the kids knew that I didn't have a clue how to control them. I was giving the students a French test, a subject most of them hate. I had this class of third years – they're the worst, children who do anything they can to give you a hard time, spotty adolescents. It's the age-range I hate most. There was a girl whose mother had just died and she used to just sit there and stare at me as if it was my fault. And there was another who used to sit next to her who was probably the biggest trouble-maker in the school. Anyway, one day, the students were doing this test – it was about the subjunctive, which we had just done in class – when this girl started crying. She put up her hand and asked if she could go to the toilet. I knew that she was probably thinking about her mother, so I said yes. I mean, what else could I do? She left the room and ten minutes later she still hadn't come back. I was wondering what to do next when the other girl put her hand up and asked if she could go and look for her friend. I couldn't go myself because the students would all cheat, so I said yes, and she left the room, too. Ten minutes later there was still no sign of her. I thought there was nothing for it but to go and find them both myself. I was just coming out of the girls' loo – they weren't there – when the headmaster called me from the other end of the corridor. 'Mr Carr!' he shouted. 'Is there any particular reason why your class are all talking to each other in the middle of an exam? I suggest you get back there and supervise them. Immediately!' I ran back to my classroom and there were the two girls, sitting quietly, as good as gold. The rest of the class were also quiet, busily getting on with their test. It was only when I marked the test that I realised I had been tricked. The whole class scored more than 80% – the first and last time that ever happened!
Her name was Mrs Pratchett. She was a small skinny old hag with a moustache on her upper lip and a mouth as sour as a green gooseberry. She never smiled. Her apron was grey and greasy. Her blouse had bits of breakfast all over it, toast-crumbs and tea stains and splotches of dried egg-yolk. It was her hands, however, that disturbed us most. They were disgusting. They were black with dirt and grime.
And do not forget that it was these hands and fingers that she would plunge into the sweet-jars when we asked for a pennyworth of Treacle Toffee or Wine Gums or Nut Clusters or whatever. There were precious few health laws in those days, and nobody, least of all Mrs Pratchett, ever thought of using a little shovel for getting sweets out as they do today. The other thing we hated Mrs Pratchett for was her meanness. Unless you spent a whole sixpence all in one go, she wouldn't give you a bag. Instead you got your sweets twisted up in a small piece of newspaper which she tore off a pile of old Daily Mirrors lying on the counter. So you can well understand that we had it in for Mrs Pratchett in a big way, but we didn't quite know what to do about it. Many schemes were put forward, but none of them was any good. None of them, that is, until suddenly, one memorable afternoon, we found the dead mouse.
Such ordinary things make me afraid. Sunshine. White roses. Children with red hair. And the name – Harry. Such an ordinary name! Yet the first time Christine mentioned the name, I felt a premonition of fear. She was five years old, due to start school in three months' time. It was a beautiful, hot day and she was playing alone in the garden as she often did. The sun shone on her pale red hair. Her big blue eyes were wide with concentration. Suddenly she looked towards the bush of white roses and smiled.
“Yes, I'm Christine”, she said. She got up and walked towards the bush. "With my mummy and daddy”, she said clearly. Then, after a pause, “Oh, but they are my mummy and daddy”.
Uneasy, without quite knowing why, I called her: “Chris, what are you doing? Come indoors now. It's too hot for you out there”.
She said, “I must go in now. Goodbye”, then walked slowly towards the house.
“Chris, who were you talking to?”
“Harry,” she said.
I couldn't get anything else out of her. When Jim, my husband, came home I told him about the mysterious Harry. He laughed.
“It's not so unusual for only children to have an imaginary friend. Chris has never been keen on her dolls. She hasn't got any brothers and sisters, and she hasn't got any friends yet of her own age. So she imagines someone. Don't worry about it”.
“It's just that I feel extra responsible for her. More so than if I were her real mother”.
“I know. But it's all right. Chris is fine”.
I felt consoled. Until next morning. Christine was sitting on the grass, staring towards the rose bush, smiling.
‘Hello”, she said. “I hoped you'd come. I'm going to school soon. Do you go to school?”
She was silent for a while, nodding, listening, absorbed. I called her in, slightly earlier than usual, for her mid-morning milk.
“Who is Harry, darling?”
“Harry's my brother. He's got red hair. Redder than mine. He's fourteen but he's as tall as you, Mummy”.
“But Chris, you haven't got a brother”.
“Harry's my brother. He says so”.
Another week passed. It was Harry, Harry all the time. The day before she was to start school, Chris said: “I won't go to school without Harry. I want to be with Harry”.
“Chris, stop this nonsense. Go to school, please”.
She began to weep, loudly and painfully. “Harry will go away if I do”.
“You'll have other friends”.
Chris and I didn't speak as I took her to school. I felt a sense of loss at parting with her but I reassured myself that every mother must feel that on the first day of school.